De ademconditie test geeft binnen 1 minuut duidelijkheid over jouw ademconditie.

Start Test
  • Referenties boek Ademhaling: De grote genezer

    Onderstaande lijst zijn de referenties van het boek Ademhaling: De grote genezer, wij hebben besloten om deze lijst niet te printen want dat zou 90 blz. referenties geven iets wat de meeste mensen nooit zullen lezen. (Onnodige verspilling van papier, verzendkosten etc). Sommige bladzijde nummers kunnen afwijken door veranderingen maar de hoofdstukken en onderwerpen zijn wel accuraat.

    1. Hough, Alexandra. “Physiotherapy in respiratory care: a problem-solving approach to respiratory and cardiac management.” Springer, 2013.
    2. Timmons, Beverly H., and Ronald Ley. “Behavioral and Psychological Approaches to Breathing.”
    3. Boiten, Frans A., Nico H. Frijda, and Cornelis JE Wientjes. “Emotions and respiratory patterns: review and critical analysis.” International journal of psychophysiology 17,
    no. 2 (1994): 103-128.
    1. Singh, I., I. S. Chohan, M. Lal, P. K. Khanna, M. C. Srivastava,
    R. B. Nanda, J. S. Lamba, and M. S. Malhotra. “Effects of
    high altitude stay on the incidence of common diseases in man.” International journal of biometeorology 21, no. 2 (1977): 93-122.
    2. Jones, Mandy, Alex Harvey, Louise Marston, and Neil E. O’Connell. “Breathing exercises for dysfunctional breathing/ hyperventilation syndrome in adults.” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 5 (2013).
    3. Thomas, Mike, Robert K. McKinley, Elaine Freeman, and Chris Foy. “Prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in patients treated for asthma in primary care: cross sectional survey.” Bmj 322, no. 7294 (2001): 1098-1100.
    4. Agache, Ioana, Cristina Ciobanu, Gabriela Paul, and Liliana Rogozea. “Dysfunctional breathing phenotype in adults with asthma-incidence and risk factors.” Clinical and translational allergy 2, no. 1 (2012): 18.
    5. Kerr, William J., Paul A. Gliebe, and James W. Dalton. “Physical phenomena associated with anxiety states: the hyperventilation syndrome.” California and western medicine 48, no. 1 (1938): 12.
    6. Courtney, Rosalba, Kenneth Mark Greenwood, and Marc Cohen. “Relationships between measures of dysfunctional breathing
    in a population with concerns about their breathing.” Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 15, no. 1 (2011): 24-34.
    7. Hymes, Alan, and Phil Nuernberger. “Breathing patterns found in heart attack patients.”
    International Journal of Yoga Therapy 2, no. 1 (1991): 25-27.
    8. Katon, Wayne J., and Edward A. Walker. “Medically unexplained
    symptoms in primary care.” The Journal of clinical psychiatry
    9. Timmons, Beverly H., and Ronald Ley. “Behavioral and
    Psychological Approaches to Breathing.
    10. Gardner, William N. “The pathophysiology of hyperventilation.”
    Chest 109 (1996): 516-534.
    11. Church, Timothy S., Diana M. Thomas, Catrine Tudor-Locke,
    Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Conrad P. Earnest, Ruben Q. Rodarte, Corby K. Martin, Steven N. Blair, and Claude Bouchard.
    “Trends over 5 decades in uS occupation-related physical activity and their associations with obesity.” PloS One 6, no. 5 (2011): e19657.
    12. “Facts & Statistics, Physical Activity.” HHS.Gov. www.hhs. gov/fitness/resource-center/ facts-and-statistics/index. html (accessed January 6, 2020).
    13. Boulding, Richard, Rebecca Stacey, Rob Niven, and Stephen
    J. Fowler. “Dysfunctional breathing: a review of the
    literature and proposal for classification.” European Respiratory Review 25, no. 141 (2016): 287-294.
    14. Hodges, Paul W., and Simon C. Gandevia. “Activation of the human diaphragm during a repetitive postural task.” The Journal of physiology 522, no. 1 (2000): 165-175.
    15. Singh, u. P. “Evidence-Based Role of Hypercapnia and Exhalation Phase in Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Insights into Hypercapnic Yoga Breathing Exercises.” J Yoga Phys Ther 7, no. 276 (2017): 2.
    16. Almqvist, Ebbe. History of industrial gases. Springer Science & Business Media, 2003.
    17. Termalfurdok. “Mátraderecske Mofetta, East Hungary.” termalfurdok. com/en/matraderecske-mofetta/ (accessed, December 10, 2020).
    18. Wikipedia contributors, “Mofetta,” Wikipedia, The
    Free Encyclopedia, https://en.wikipedia. org/w/index. php?title=Mofetta&oldid=983542800 (accessed December 10, 2020).
    19. Henderson, Yandell, Howard W. Haggard, and Stuart Scott.
    “The treatment of carbon monoxid asphyxia by means of oxygen+ co2 inhalation: A method for the rapid elimination of
    carbon monoxid from the blood.” Journal of the American Medical Association 79, no. 14 (1922): 1137-1145.
    20. Henderson, Yandell. “The prevention and treatment of asphyxia in the new-born.”
    Journal of the American Medical Association 90, no. 8 (1928): 583-586.
    21. Wikipedia contributors, “Pneumatic Institution,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, php?title=Pneumatic_Institution&oldid=944494509 (accessed July 6, 2020).
    22. Wikipedia contributors, “Ralph M. Waters,” Wikipedia,
    The Free Encyclopedia, https:// en.wikipedia. org/w/index.php?title=Ralph_M._Waters&oldid=925524562
    (accessed July 6, 2020).
    23. Coleman, Lewis. Four Forgotten Giants of Anesthesia History.
    Journal of Anesthesia and Surgery, 2016.
    24. Schaefer, Karl E. “Respiratory adaptation to chronic
    hypercapnia.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences109,
    no. 2 (1963): 772-782.
    25. McGurk, S. P., B. A. Blanksby, and M. J. Anderson. “The
    relationship of hypercapnic ventilatory responses to age, gender and athleticism.” Sports medicine 19, no. 3 (1995): 173-183.
    26. Martin, Bruce J., Kenneth E. Sparks, Clifford W. zwillich, and John V. Weil. “Low exercise ventilation in endurance athletes.” Medicine and science in sports 11, no. 2 (1979): 181-185.
    27. Woorons, X., P. Mollard, A. Pichon, C. Lamberto, A. Duvallet, and J-P. Richalet. “Moderate exercise in hypoxia induces
    a greater arterial desaturation in trained than untrained men.” Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 17, no. 4 (2007): 431-436.
    28. Scoggin, C. H., R. D. Doekel, M. H. Kryger, C. W. zwillich, and J. V. Weil. “Familial aspects of decreased hypoxic drive in endurance athletes.” Journal of Applied Physiology 44,
    no. 3 (1978): 464-468.
    29. Klabunde, Richard E. “Metabolic Mechanisms of Vasodilation.” Cardiovascular Physiology Concepts. Published 2007. www. (accessed January 6, 2020).
    30. Key, Josephine. “‘The core’: understanding it, and retraining its dysfunction.” Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 17, no. 4 (2013): 541-559.
    31. Bernardi, Luciano, Giammario Spadacini, Jerzy Bellwon, Ramiz Hajric, Helmut Roskamm, and Axel W. Frey. “Effect of breathing rate on oxygen saturation and exercise performance in chronic heart failure.” The Lancet 351, no. 9112 (1998): 1308-1311.
    32. Kuschel, Karl. “The Low Minute Ventilation Alarm.” ADHB. Published March 2002. TeachingResources/Ventilation/LowMinuteVentilation.
    htm (accessed January 6, 2020).
    33. Wikipedia contributors, “Tidal volume,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, volume&oldid=930447263 (accessed January 6, 2020).
    34. Bilo, Grzegorz, Miriam Revera, Maurizio Bussotti, Daniele Bonacina, Katarzyna Styczkiewicz, Gianluca Caldara, Alessia Giglio et al. “Effects of slow deep breathing at high
    altitude on oxygen saturation, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics.” PloS One 7, no. 11 (2012): e49074.
    35. Cretikos, Michelle A., Rinaldo Bellomo, Ken Hillman, Jack Chen, Simon Finfer, and Arthas Flabouris. “Respiratory rate: the neglected vital sign.” Medical Journal of Australia 188, no. 11 (2008): 657-659.
    36. Goldhill, D. R., A. F. McNarry, G. Mandersloot, and A. McGinley. “A physiologically-based early warning score for ward patients: the association between score and outcome.” Anaesthesia 60, no. 6 (2005): 547-553.
    37. Lehrer, Paul M., and Richard Gevirtz. “Heart rate variability biofeedback: how and why does it work?.” Frontiers in psychology 5 (2014): 756.
    1. Nishino, Takashi. “Pathophysiology of dyspnea evaluated by breath-holding test: studies of furosemide treatment.” Respiratory physiology & neurobiology 167, no. 1 (2009): 20-25.
    2. Stanley, N. N., E. L. Cunningham, M. D. Altose, S. G. Kelsen, R. S. Levinson, and N.
    S. Cherniack. “Evaluation of breath holding in hypercapnia as a simple clinical test of respiratory chemosensitivity.” Thorax 30, no. 3 (1975): 337-343.
    3. McArdle, William D., Frank I. Katch, and Victor L. Katch. Exercise physiology: nutrition, energy, and human performance. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2010.
    4. Courtney, Rosalba (Summer 2008). “Strengths, Weaknesses, and Possibilities of the Buteyko Breathing Method”. Biofeedback. 36 (2): 59–63.
    5. Mladina, Ranko, Emil Čujić, Marin Šubarić, and Katarina Vuković. “Nasal septal deformities in ear, nose, and throat patients: an international study.” American journal of otolaryngology 29, no. 2 (2008): 75-82.
    6. Reitzen, Shari D., Wayne Chung, and Anil R. Shah. “Nasal septal
    deviation in the pediatric and adult populations.” Ear, Nose &
    Throat Journal 90, no. 3 (2011): 112-115.
    7. Duke university. “Ethanol Leaves the Lungs in the Air.” https://sites. 4-alcohol-and-the-breathalyzer-test/content-ethanol-leaves-the- lungs-in-the-air/ (accessed December 14, 2020).
    8. Leung, Wency. “Toronto researchers have found a new way to speed up the body’s ability to rid itself of alcohol.” GlobeandMail. com. Published November 12, 2020. www. canada/article-toronto-researchers-have-found-a-new-way-to- speed-up-the-bodys/?utm_ source=Shared+Article+Sent+to+user&utm_medi- um=E-mail:+Newsletters+/+E-Blasts+/+etc.&utm_ campaign=Shared+Web+Arti-cle+Links (accessed, December
    14, 2020).
    9. Kiesel, Kyle, Madison Burklow, Mary Beth Garner, Josh Hayden,
    A. J. Hermann, Elizabeth Kingshott, Greg McCullough et al. “Exercise intervention for indiciduals with dysfunctional breathing: a matched controlled trial.” International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy 15, no. 1 (2020): 114.
    10. Saoji, Apar Avinash, B. R. Raghavendra, and N. K. Manjunath. “Effects of yogic breath regulation: A narrative review of scientific
    evidence.” Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine 30 (2017):1e9.
    11. Van Lysbeth, A. Pranayma. Mandala Books, 1971.
    12. Benson, Herbert, John W. Lehmann, M. S. Malhotra, Ralph F.
    Goldman, Jeffrey Hopkins, and Mark D. Epstein. “Body temperature changes during the practice of g Tum-mo yoga.” Nature 295, no. 5846 (1982): 234-236.
    13. Kozhevnikov, Maria, James Elliott, Jennifer Shephard, and Klaus Gramann. “Neurocognitive and somatic components of temperature increases during g-tummo meditation: legend and reality.” PloS One 8, no. 3 (2013): e58244.
    14. Kox, Matthijs, Lucas T. van Eijk, Jelle zwaag, Joanne van den Wildenberg, Fred CGJ Sweep, Johannes G. van der Hoeven, and Peter Pickkers. “Voluntary activation of the sympathetic nervous system and attenuation of the innate immune response in humans.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111, no. 20 (2014): 7379-7384.
    15. Bush, Jessica. “Explained: How Tibetan Monks use Meditation To
    Raise Their Body Temperature.” www. (accessed November 24, 2020).
    16. Lama Yeshe. The Bliss of Inner Fire. Simon and Schuster, 1998.
    17. Epel, Elissa S., and Gordon J. Lithgow. “Stress biology and
    aging mechanisms: toward understanding the deep connection between adaptation to stress and longevity.” Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences 69, no. Suppl_1 (2014): S10-S16.
    18. Gautier-Sauvigné, Sabine, Damien Colas, Pierre Parmantier, Pierre Clement, Abdallah Gharib, Nicole Sarda, and Raymond Cespuglio. “Nitric oxide and sleep.” Sleep medicine reviews 9, no. 2 (2005): 101-113.
    19. zaghi, Soroush, Cynthia Peterson, Shayan Shamtoob, Brigitte Fung, Daniel Kwok-keung Ng, Triin Jagomagi, Nicole Archambault et al. “Assessment of Nasal Breathing using Lip Taping: A Simple and Effective Screening Tool.” International Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 6, no. 1 (2020): 10.
    20. Frothingham, Scott and Timothy J. Legg. “How Long Does It
    Take for a New Behavior to Become Automatic?.” Healthline. Published October 24, 2019. www.healthline. com/health/how- long-does-it-take-to-form-a-habit (accessed December 18, 2020).
    1. Abreu, Rubens Rafael, Regina Lunardi Rocha, Joel Alves Lamounier, and Ângela Francisca Marques Guerra. “Prevalence of mouth breathing among children.” Jornal de pediatria 84, no. 5 (2008): 467-470.
    2. Felcar, Josiane Marques, Izabele Rafael Bueno, Ana Carolina Silva Massan, Roberta Pereira Torezan, and Jefferson
    Rosa Cardoso. “Prevalence of mouth breathing in children
    from an elementary school.” Ciencia & saude coletiva 15, no. 2 (2010): 427.
    3. Izuhara, Y., Hisako Matsumoto, T. Nagasaki, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Murase, I. Ito, T. Oguma et al. “Mouth breathing, another risk factor for asthma: the Nagahama Study.” Allergy 71, no. 7 (2016): 1031-1036.
    4. Kim, Eun Joong, Ji Ho Choi, Kang Woo Kim, Tae Hoon Kim, Sang Hag Lee, Heung Man Lee, Chol Shin, Ki Yeol Lee, and Seung Hoon Lee. “The impacts of open-mouth breathing on upper airway space in obstructive sleep apnea: 3-D MDCT analysis.” European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 268, no. 4 (2011): Ohki, M., N. usui, H. Kanazawa, I. Hara, and K. Kawano.
    “Relationship between oral breathing and nasal obstruction
    in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.” Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum 523 (1996): 228-230.
    5. Lee, Seung Hoon, Ji Ho Choi, Chol Shin, Heung Man Lee, Soon Young Kwon, and Sang Hag Lee. “How does open-mouth
    breathing influence upper airway anatomy?.” The Laryngoscope 117, no. 6 (2007): 1102-1106.
    6. Scharf, Martin B., and Aliza Pollack Cohen. “Diagnostic and treatment implications of nasal obstruction in snoring and
    obstructive sleep apnea.” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 81, no. 4 (1998): 279-290.
    7. Wasilewska, J., and M. Kaczmarski. “Obstructive sleep apnea- hypopnea syndrome in children.” Wiadomosci lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland: 1960) 63, no. 3 (2010): 201-212.
    8. Rappai, Maria, Nancy Collop, Stephen Kemp, and Richard deShazo. “The nose and sleep-disordered breathing: what we know and what we do not know.” Chest 124, no. 6 (2003): 2309- 2323.
    9. Timmons, Beverly, and Ronald Ley. “Behavioral and Psychological Approaches to Breathing Disorders.” Psyccritiques 40, no. 4 (1995).
    10. Cottle, M.H., 1987. The work, ways, positions and patterns of nasal breathing (relevance in heart and lung illness). Reprinted in: Barelli, P., Loch, W.E.E., Kern, E.R., Steiner, A. (Eds.), Rhinology. The collected writings of Maurice H. Cottle,
    MD. American Rhinologic Society, Kansas City, Missouri.
    11. Gilbert, Chris. “Interaction of psychological and emotional
    variables with breathing dysfunction.” In Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders, pp. 79-91. Churchill Livingstone, 2014.
    12. Bartley, Jim. “Nasal congestion and hyperventilation syndrome.” American journal of rhinology 19, no. 6 (2005): 607-611.
    13. Strohl, Kingman P., Jean L. Arnold, Michael J. Decker, Peter
    L. Hoekje, and E. R. McFadden. “Nasal flow-resistive responses to challenge with cold dry air.” Journal of Applied Physiology 72, no. 4 (1992): 1243-1246.
    14. Svensson, Sophie, Anna Carin Olin, and Johan Hellgren. “Increased net water loss by oral compared to nasal expiration in healthy subjects.” Rhinology 44, no. 1 (2006): 74.
    15. Swift, A. C., I. T. Campbell, and TessaM Mckown. “Oronasal obstruction, lung volumes, and arterial oxygenation.” The Lancet 331, no. 8577 (1988): 73-75.
    17. Hopkins, Erin, and Sandeep Sharma. “Physiology, Functional
    Residual Capacity.” (2019).
    18. Wolfson, Marla R., and Thomas H. Shaffer. “Respiratory
    physiology: structure, function, and integrative responses
    to intervention with special emphasis on the ventilatory pump.” In Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy, pp. 39-81. Mosby, 2004.
    19. McCrimmon, Donald R., G. S. Mitchell, J. L. Feldman, and G. F. Alheid. “Network control.” In Encyclopedia of neuroscience, pp. 79-89. Elsevier Ltd., 2009.
    20. Perlman, Jason. “Does Mouth Breathing Actually Matter That Much?.” Spanaway Dental Wellness. Published July 9, 2020. (accessed December 9, 2020).
    21. Ricciardolo, Fabio Luigi Massimo. “Multiple roles of nitric oxide in the airways.” Thorax
    58, no. 2 (2003): 175-182.
    22. Antosova, M., D. Mokra, L. Pepucha, J. Plevkova, T. Buday,
    M. Sterusky, and A. Bencova. “Physiology of nitric oxide in the
    respiratory system.” Physiological research 66 (2017).
    23. Selimoglu, Erol. “Nitric oxide in health and disease from the point
    of view of the otorhinolaryngologist.” Current pharmaceutical
    design 11, no. 23 (2005): 3051-3060.
    24. Barbato, Joel E., and Edith Tzeng. “Nitric oxide and arterial
    disease.” Journal of vascular surgery 40, no. 1 (2004): 187-193.
    25. Gut, Guy, Riva Tauman, Michal Greenfeld, Keren Armoni-
    Domany, and Yakov Sivan. “Nasal nitric oxide in sleep-disordered breathing in children.” Sleep and Breathing 20, no. 1 (2016): 303- 308.
    26. Lundberg, J. O. N., G. Settergren, S. Gelinder, J. M. Lundberg, K. Alving, and E. Weitzberg. “Inhalation of nasally derived nitric oxide modulates pulmonary function in humans.” Acta physiologica scandinavica 158, no. 4 (1996): 343-347.
    27. Lundberg, J. O. N., and E. Weitzberg. “Nasal nitric oxide in man.” Thorax 54, no. 10 (1999): 947-952.
    28. Lundberg, Jon O. “Nitric oxide and the paranasal sinuses.”
    The Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy
    and Evolutionary Biology: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 291, no. 11 (2008): 1479-1484.
    29. Sánchez Crespo, Alejandro, Jenny Hallberg, Jon O. Lundberg, Sten GE Lindahl, Hans Jacobsson, Eddie Weitzberg, and Sven Nyrén. “Nasal nitric oxide and regulation of human pulmonary blood flow in the upright position.” Journal of applied physiology 108, no. 1 (2009): 181-188.
    30. Sun, Peng, Jin Wang, Pragna Mehta, David L. Beckman, and Lin
    Liu. “Effect of nitric oxide on lung surfactant secretion.”
    Experimental lung research 29, no. 5 (2003): 303-314.
    31. Lakshminrusimha, Satyanarayana, G. G. Konduri, and Robin
    H. Steinhorn. “Considerations in the management of hypoxemic respiratory failure and persistent pulmonary hypertension in term and late preterm neonates.” Journal of Perinatology 36, no. 2 (2016): S12-S19.
    32. Åkerström, Sara, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Choong Tat Keng, Yee-Joo Tan, and Ali Mirazimi.
    «Dual effect of nitric oxide on SARS-CoV replication: viral RNA production and palmitoylation of the S protein are affected.» Virology 395, no. 1 (2009): 1-9.
    33. Jamshaid, Sana. “Evidence for cure of flu through nose breathing.”
    34. Akaike, T., and H. Maeda. “Nitric oxide and virus infection.” Immunology 101, no. 3 (2000): 300-308.
    35. Saura, Marta, Carlos zaragoza, Audrey McMillan, Richard
    A. Quick, Christine Hohenadl, John M. Lowenstein, and Charles J. Lowenstein. “An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease.” Immunity 10, no. 1 (1999): 21-28.
    36. Sanders, Scherer P., David Proud, Solbert Permutt, Edward S. Siekierski, Robin Yachechko, and Mark C. Liu. “Role of nasal nitric oxide in the resolution of experimental rhinovirus infection.” Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 113, no. 4 (2004): 697-702.
    37. “Nitric Oxide Inhalation Therapy for COVID-19 Infections in the ED (NO COV-ED).” Clinicaltrials. gov. Published April 18, 2020. ct2/show/ NCT04338828 (accessed July 7 2020).
    38. Lei, Chong, Binxiao Su, Hailong Dong, Andrea Bellavia, Raffaele Di Fenza, Bijan Safaee Fakhr, Stefano Gianni et al. “Protocol of a randomized controlled trial testing inhaled Nitric Oxide in mechanically ventilated patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome in COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2).” medRxiv (2020).
    39. Martel, Jan, Yun-Fei Ko, John D. Young, and David M. Ojcius. “Could nasal nitric oxide help to mitigate the severity of COVID-19?.” (2020).
    40. BioSpace. “SaNOtize Phase II COVID Prevention and Treatment Trial underway in BC, Quebec Enrolment to Begin June 1.” Published May 25, 2020). www. article/releases/sanotize-phase-ii-covid-prevention-and-treatment-
    trial-underway-in-bc-quebec-enrolment-to-begin-june-1/ accessed December 11, 2020).
    41. Semeniuk, Ivan. “Canadian company SaNOtize Research aims to limit COVID-19 spread with nasal spray.” The Globe and Mail. Published April 22, 2020. www.theglobeandmail. com/canada/ article-canadian-company-sanotize-research-aims-to- limit-covid-19-spread-with/ (accessed December 11, 2020).
    42. zou, Xin, Ke Chen, Jiawei zou, Peiyi Han, Jie Hao, and
    zeguang Han. “Single-cell RNA-seq data analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection.” Frontiers of medicine (2020): 1-8.
    43. Maniscalco, M., E. Weitzberg, J. Sundberg, M. Sofia, and J. O. Lundberg. “Assessment of nasal and sinus nitric oxide output using single-breath humming exhalations.” European Respiratory Journal 22, no. 2 (2003): 323-329.
    44. Weitzberg, Eddie, and Jon ON Lundberg. “Humming greatly increases nasal nitric oxide.”
    American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 166, no. 2 (2002): 144-145.
    45. Selimoglu, Erol. “Nitric oxide in health and disease from the point of view of the otorhinolaryngologist.” Current pharmaceutical design 11, no. 23 (2005): 3051-3060.
    46. Eby, George A. “Strong humming for one hour daily to terminate chronic rhinosinusitis in four days: A case report and hypothesis for action by stimulation of endogenous nasal nitric oxide production.” Medical hypotheses 66, no. 4 (2006): 851-854.
    47. Theunissen, Sigrid, François Guerrero, Nicola Sponsiello, Danilo Cialoni, M. Pieri, Peter Germonpré, G. Obeid et al. “Nitric oxide- related endothelial changes in breath-hold and scuba divers.” Undersea Hyperb Med 40, no. 2 (2013): 135-44.
    48. Leung, Nancy HL, Daniel KW Chu, Eunice YC Shiu, Kwok- Hung Chan, James J. McDevitt, Benien JP Hau, Hui-Ling Yen et al. “Respiratory virus shedding in exhaled breath and efficacy of face masks.” Nature medicine 26, no. 5 (2020): 676-680.
    49. Dhillon. Ranu S, Abraar Karan, David Beier and Devabhaktuni Srikrishna. “We Need Better Masks.” Harvard Business Review. Published June 18, 2020. we-need-better-masks (accessed December 16, 2020).
    50. Huang, J. T. “Nasal plugs for preventing respiratory infections.” Journal of international medical research 32, no. 1 (2004): 53-56.
    51. Brody, Jane E. “Learning how to breathe again in the new normal.” Independent. Published June 22, 2020. www.
    exercise-anxiety-a9574936.html (accessed July 22, 2020).
    52. Mertz, Janet S., Thomas V. Mccaffrey, and Eugene B. Kern.
    “Role of the Nasal Airway in Regulation of Airway Resistance During Hypercapnia and Exercise Second-Place Resident Award at 1982 Research Forum.” Otolaryngology—Head and
    Neck Surgery 92, no. 3 (1984): 302-307.
    53. Singh, u. P. “Evidence-Based Role of Hypercapnia and Exhalation Phase in Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Insights into Hypercapnic Yoga Breathing Exercises.” J Yoga Phys Ther 7, no. 276 (2017): 2.
    54. Kenney, M. J., and C. K. Ganta. “Autonomic nervous system and immune system interactions.” Comprehensive physiology 4, no. 3 (2011): 1177-1200.
    55. Pongratz, Georg, and Rainer H. Straub. “The sympathetic nervous response in inflammation.” Arthritis research & therapy 16, no. 6 (2014): 504.
    56. Tatum, Arthur L. “The effect of deficient and excessive pulmonary ventilation on nasal volume.” American Journal of Physiology- Legacy Content 65, no. 2 (1923): 229-233.
    57. Hasegawa, M., and E. B. Kern. “The effect of breath holding, hyperventilation, and exercise on nasal resistance.” Rhinology 16, no. 4 (1978): 243-249.
    58. Lung, M. A., and J. C. Wang. “Effects of hypercapnia and hypoxia on nasal vasculature and airflow resistance in the anaesthetized dog.” The Journal of physiology 373, no. 1 (1986): 261-275.
    59. Bartley J., Wong C. (2013) Nasal Pulmonary Interactions. In: Önerci T. (eds) Nasal Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nasal Disorders. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
    60. Propert, David. “Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders–A Multidisciplinary Approach.” International Journal of Osteopathic Medicine 17, no. 3 (2014): 216-217.
    61. Wikipedia contributors, “Empty nose syndrome,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, php?title=Empty_nose_syndrome&oldid=962649384 (accessed July 14, 2020).
    62. Bartley, Jim. “Nasal congestion and hyperventilation syndrome.” American journal of rhinology 19, no. 6 (2005): 607-611.
    63. Strider, J. W., C. G. Masterson, and P. L. Durham. “Treatment of mast cells with carbon dioxide suppresses degranulation via a novel mechanism involving repression of increased intracellular calcium levels.” Allergy 66, no. 3 (2011): 341-350.
    64. Saibene, Franco, Piero Mognoni, Claudio L. Lafortuna, and Richard Mostardi. “Oronasal breathing during exercise.”
    Pflügers Archiv 378, no. 1 (1978): 65-69.
    65. Niinimaa, V. P. S. R. J., P. Cole, S. Mintz, and R. J. Shephard.
    “The switching point from nasal to oronasal breathing.” Respiration physiology 42, no. 1 (1980): 61-71.
    66. Dallam, George M., Steve R. McClaran, Daniel G. Cox, and Carol P. Foust. “Effect of Nasal Versus Oral Breathing on Vo2max and Physiological Economy in Recreational
    Runners Following an Extended Period Spent using Nasally Restricted Breathing.” International Journal of Kinesiology and Sports Science 6, no. 2 (2018): 22-29.
    67. Morton, A. R., K. King, S. Papalia, Carmel Goodman, K.
    R. Turley, and J. H. Wilmore. “Comparison of maximal oxygen consumption with oral and nasal breathing.” Australian journal of science and medicine in sport 27, no. 3 (1995): 51-55.
    68. Joyner, Michael J., and Edward F. Coyle. “Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions.” The Journal of physiology 586, no. 1 (2008): 35-44.
    69. Thomas, S. A., V. Phillips, C. Mock, M. Lock, G. Cox, and J. Baxter. “The effects of nasal breathing on exercise tolerance.” (2009).
    70. Bergland, Christopher. “Breathe In! Nasal Inhalations Are
    Linked to Laser-Like Focus.” Weizmann Institute of Science. Published March 17, 2019. news-media/ in-the-news/breathe-in-nasal-inhalations-are-linked-to-laser-like- focus (accessed January 7, 2020).
    71. Perl, Ofer, Aharon Ravia, Mica Rubinson, Ami Eisen, Timna Soroka, Nofar Mor, Lavi Secundo, and Noam Sobel. “Human non-olfactory cognition phase-locked with inhalation.” Nature human behaviour 3, no. 5 (2019): 501.
    72. Kim, Helyn, and Claire E. Cameron. “Implications of visuospatial skills and executive functions for learning mathematics: Evidence from children with autism and Williams syndrome.” AERA open 2, no. 4 (2016): 2332858416675124.
    73. Miyake, Akira, Naomi P. Friedman, David A. Rettinger, Priti Shah, and Mary Hegarty. “How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related? A atent-variable analysis.” Journal of experimental psychology: General 130, no. 4 (2001): 621.
    74. Ogawa, Kenji, Chiyoko Nagai, and Toshio Inui. “Brain mechanisms of visuomotor transformation based on deficits in tracing and copying.” Japanese Psychological Research 52, no. 2 (2010): 91-106. Korkman, Marit. “NEPSY. A developmental neurop-sychological assessment.” Test materials and manual (1998).
    75. Mervis, Carolyn B., and Bonita P. Klein-Tasman. “Williams syndrome: cognition, personality, and adaptive behavior.” Mental retardation and developmental disabilities research reviews 6, no. 2 (2000): 148-158.
    76. Newcombe, Nora S., and Andrea Frick. “Early education for spatial intelligence: Why, what, and how.” Mind, Brain,
    and Education 4, no. 3 (2010): 102-111.
    77. Furley, Philip, Daniel Memmert, and Christian Heller. “The dark side of visual awareness in sport: Inattentional blindness in a real-world basketball task.” Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics 72, no. 5 (2010): 1327-1337.
    78. Pietsch, Stefanie, Petra Jansen, and Jennifer Lehmann. “The choice of sports affects mental rotation performance in adolescents.” Frontiers in neuroscience 13 (2019): 224.
    79. Pietsch, Stefanie, and Petra Jansen. “Different mental rotation performance in students of music, sport and education.” Learning and Individual Differences 22, no. 1 (2012): 159-163.
    80. Voyer, Daniel, and Petra Jansen. “Motor expertise and performance in spatial tasks: A meta-analysis.” Human Movement Science 54 (2017): 110-124.
    81. Fragala, Maren S., Kyle S. Beyer, Adam R. Jajtner, Jeremy R. Townsend, Gabriel J. Pruna, Carleigh H. Boone, Johnathan
    D. Bohner, David H. Fukuda, Jeffrey R. Stout, and Jay
    R. Hoffman. “Resistance exercise may improve spatial
    awareness and visual reaction in older adults.” The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research 28, no. 8 (2014): 2079-2087.
    82. Tlauka, Michael, Jennifer Williams, and Paul Williamson. “Spatial ability in secondary school students: Intra-sex differences based on self-selection for physical education.” British Journal of Psychology 99, no. 3 (2008): 427-440.
    83. Steggemann, Yvonne, Kai Engbert, and Matthias Weigelt. “Selective effects of motor expertise in mental body rotation tasks: comparing object-based and perspective transformations.”
    Brain and Cognition 76, no. 1 (2011): 97-105.
    84. Voyer, Daniel, Petra Jansen, and Sandra Kaltner. “Mental rotation with egocentric and object-based transformations.” Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 70, no. 11 (2017): 2319-2330.
    85. Saj, Arnaud, and Koviljka Barisnikov. “Influence of spatial perception abilities on reading in school-age children.” Cogent Psychology 2, no. 1 (2015): 1049736. HOOFDSTUK VIER
    1. Bergland, Christopher. “A Vagus Nerve Survival Guide to Combat Fight-or-Flight urges.” Psychology Today. Published May 15, 2017. the-athletes- way/201705/vagus-nerve-survival-guide-combat-fight-or-flight- urges (accessed November 12, 2019).
    2. Wikipedia contributors, “Vagus nerve,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, php?title=Vagus_nerve&oldid=933413510 (accessed January 6, 2020).
    3. Bergland, Christopher. “Vagus Nerve Stimulation Dramatically Reduces Inflammation.” Psychology Today. Published
    July 16, 2016. blog/the-athletes-way/201607/vagus-nerve-stimulation- dramatically-reduces-inflammation (accessed November
    2, 2019).
    4. Behar, Michael. “Can the Nervous System be Hacked?.” The
    New York Times Magazine, May 23, 2014. www.nytimes. com/2014/05/25/magazine/can-the-nervous-system-be-hacked. html?_r=0 (accessed November 12, 2019).
    5. Gendry, Sebastian. “On the Vagus nerve and the body-mind connection.” Laughter Online University. www. (accessed November 12, 2019).
    6. Breit, Sigrid, Aleksandra Kupferberg, Gerhard Rogler, and Gregor Hasler. “Vagus nerve as modulator of the brain–gut axis in psychiatric and inflammatory disorders.” Frontiers in psychiatry 9 (2018): 44.
    7. Homeostasis.” Khan Academy. high-school-biology/ hs-human-body-systems/hs-body-struc- ture-and-homeostasis/a/homeostasis (accessed November 12, 2019).
    8. Ernst, Gernot. “Heart-Rate variability—More than Heart Beats?.” Frontiers in public health 5 (2017): 240.
    9. Porges, Stephen W. “Vagal tone: a physiologic marker of stress vul- nerability.” Pediatrics 90, no. 3 Pt 2 (1992): 498-504.
    10. Chovatiya, Raj, and Ruslan Medzhitov. “Stress, inflammation, and defense of homeostasis.” Molecular cell 54, no. 2 (2014): 281-288.
    11. Mayo Clinic Staff. “Chronic stress puts your health at risk.” Mayo Clinic. www.mayoclinic. org/healthy-lifestyle/stress-management/in- depth/stress/art-20046037 (accessed November 12, 2019).
    12. The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. “Acetylcholine.” Ency- clopædia Britannica. Published December 26, 2019. www.britannica. com/science/acetylcholine (accessed November 12, 2019). Liu, Yun-zi, Yun-Xia Wang, and Chun-Lei Jiang. “Inflammation: the common pathway of stress-related diseases.” Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 11 (2017): 316.
    13. Carnegie Mellon university. “How stress influences disease: Study reveals inflammation as the culprit.” ScienceDaily. Published April 2, 2012. < releases/2012/04/120402162546. htm> (accessed November 12, 2019).
    14. Rosenfeld, Jordan. 9 Fascinating Facts About the Vagus Nerve. Mental Floss. Published November 13, 2018. article/65710/9-nervy-facts-about-vagus-nerve (accessed Novem- ber 12, 2019).
    15. Lehrer, Paul M., and Richard Gevirtz. “Heart rate variability biofeed- back: how and why does it work?.” Frontiers in psychology 5 (2014): 756.
    16. Perri, Maria A., and Elizabeth Halford. “Pain and faulty breathing: a pilot study.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, no. 4 (2004): 297-306.
    17. Singh, u. P. “Evidence-Based Role of Hypercapnia and Exhalation Phase in Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Insights into Hypercapnic Yoga Breathing Exercises.” J Yoga Phys Ther 7, no. 276 (2017): 2.
    18. TSarfis, Petr Grigorevich. Nature and health: Treatment and rehabili- tation by natural factors. Mir Publishers, 1985.
    19. Moore, Jason. “HRV Demographics, Part 3 – Health, Medication & Guidelines.” HRV Course. ics-health-medication-guidelines/ (accessed November 12, 2019).
    20. Yun, Joon. “Heart Rate variability as a Biomarker of Longevity.” The Quantified Body. ty-dr-joon-yun/ (accessed November 12, 2019).
    21. Bourassa, Kyle J., John JB Allen, Matthias R. Mehl, and David A. Sbarra. “The Impact of Narrative Expressive Writing on Heart Rate, Heart Rate Variability, and Blood Pressure Following Marital Separa- tion.” Psychosomatic medicine 79, no. 6 (2017): 697.
    22. Ising, Marcus, and Florian Holsboer. “Genetics of stress response and stress-related disorders.” Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 8, no. 4 (2006): 433.
    23. Henton, Lee. “The Secrets of Vagus Nerve Stimulation: 18 Proven, Science-Backed Exercises and Methods to Activate Your Vagal Tone and Heal from Inflammation, Chronic Stress, Anxiety, Epilepsy, and Depression.” (2020).
    24. Gerritsen, Roderik Jan Sebastiaan, and Guido PH Band. “Breath of life: the respiratory vagal stimulation model of contemplative activi- ty.” Frontiers in human neuroscience 12 (2018): 397.
    25. Le Meur, Yann, Aurélien Pichon, Karine Schaal, Laurent Schmitt, Julien Louis, Jacques Gueneron, Pierre Paul Vidal, and Christophe Hausswirth. “Evidence of parasympathetic hyperactivity in function- ally overreached athletes.” Med Sci Sports Exerc 45, no. 11 (2013): 2061-2071.
    27. Russo, Marc A., Danielle M. Santarelli, and Dean O’Rourke. “The physiological effects of slow breathing in the healthy human.” Breathe 13, no. 4 (2017): 298-309.
    28. Ma, Xiao, zi-Qi Yue, zhu-Qing Gong, Hong zhang, Nai-Yue Duan, Yu-Tong Shi, Gao-Xia Wei, and You-Fa Li. “The effect of diaphrag- matic breathing on attention, negative affect and stress in healthy adults.” Frontiers in psychology 8 (2017): 874.
    29. Porges, Stephen W. “Respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Physiological basis, quantitative methods, and clinical implications.” In Cardiore- spiratory and cardiosomatic psychophysiology, pp. 101-115. Springer, Boston, MA, 1986.
    30. Lehrer, Paul, Maria Katsamanis Karavidas, Shou-En Lu, Susette M. Coyle, Leo O. Oikawa, Marie Macor, Steve E. Calvano, and Stephen F. Lowry. “Voluntarily produced increases in heart rate variability modulate autonomic effects of endotoxin induced systemic in- flammation: an exploratory study.” Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback 35, no. 4 (2010): 303-315.
    31. Vaschillo, Evgeny, Paul Lehrer, Naphtali Rishe, and Mikhail Konstan- tinov. “Heart rate variability biofeedback as a method for assessing baroreflex function: a preliminary study of resonance in the cardio- vascular system.” Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback 27, no. 1 (2002): 1-27.
    32. Deschodt-Arsac, Veronique, Romain Lalanne, Beatrice Spiluttini, Claire Bertin, and Laurent M. Arsac. “Effects of heart rate variability biofeedback training in athletes exposed to stress of university exam- inations.” PloS One 13, no. 7 (2018): e0201388.
    33. Hassett, Afton L., Diane C. Radvanski, Evgeny G. Vaschillo, Bron- ya Vaschillo, Leonard H. Sigal, Maria Katsamanis Karavidas, Steven Buyske, and Paul M. Lehrer. “A pilot study of the efficacy of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback in patients with fibromyalgia.” Applied psychophysiology and biofeedback 32, no. 1 (2007): 1-10.
    34. Swenne, C. A. “Baroreflex sensitivity: mechanisms and measure- ment.” Netherlands Heart Journal 21, no. 2 (2013): 58-60.
    35. Trembach, Nikita, and Igor zabolotskikh. “Breath-holding test in evaluation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects.” Respiratory physiology & neurobiology 235 (2017): 79-82.
    36. Joseph, Chacko N., Cesare Porta, Gaia Casucci, Nadia Casiraghi, Mara Maffeis, Marco Rossi, and Luciano Bernardi. “Slow breathing improves arterial baroreflex sensitivity and decreases blood pressure in essential hypertension.” Hypertension 46, no. 4 (2005): 714-718.
    37. Boon, Paul, Ine Moors, Veerle De Herdt, and Kristl Vonck. “Vagus
    nerve stimulation and cognition.” Seizure 15, no. 4 (2006): 259-263.
    38. De Couck, Marijke, Ralf Caers, Liza Musch, Johanna Fliegauf, Anto-
    nio Giangreco, and Yori Gidron. “How breathing can help you make better decisions: Two studies on the effects of breathing patterns on heart rate variability and decision-making in business cases.” Interna- tional Journal of Psychophysiology 139 (2019): 1-9.
    39. Cao, Bing, Jun Wang, Mahadi Shahed, Beth Jelfs, Rosa HM Chan, and Ying Li. “Vagus nerve stimulation alters phase synchrony of the anterior cingulate cortex and facilitates decision making in rats.” Scientific reports 6 (2016): 35135.
    40. zelano, Christina, Heidi Jiang, Guangyu zhou, Nikita Arora, Stephan Schuele, Joshua Rosenow, and Jay A. Gottfried. “Nasal respiration entrains human limbic oscillations and modulates cognitive function.” Journal of Neuroscience 36, no. 49 (2016): 12448-12467.
    41. Wikipedia contributors, “Limbic system,” Wikipedia, The Free En- cyclopedia, https:// tem&oldid=931823143 (accessed January 6, 2020).
    42. Hoffmann, Erik. “Nadi Shodanas influence on the brain.” Bhindu no. 13 (2009): 11-13.
    43. De, Anup, Samiran Mondal. “Improvement of Brain Function through Combined Yogic Intervention, Meditation and Pranayama: A Critical Analysis.” Researchgate (2016).
    44. Seymour, Tom. Stacey Sampson. “Everything you need to know about the vagus nerve.” Medical News Today. Published June 28, 2017. articles/318128.php (accessed November 12 2019).
    45. Schwartz, Arielle. “Natural Vagus Nerve Stimulation.” Arielle Schwartz. Published July 19, 2015. ral-vagus-nerve-stimulation-dr-arielle-schwartz/#. XhMjeC2ca8p (accessed November 12, 2019).
    46. Bergland, Christoper. “Longer Exhalations Are an Easy Way to Hack Your Vagus Nerve.” Psychology Today. Published May 09, 2019. longer-exhalations-are-easy-way-hack-your-vagus-nerve?fbclid=I- wAR1ozFQRsixTqPQ9sxAAuIdzB9bXtnY4ANT3LsixBvVPo1KW- gHsQEkOpuO9F7kY (accessed November 12, 2019).
    47. Chang, Rui B., David E. Strochlic, Erika K. Williams, Benjamin D. umans, and Stephen D. Liberles. “Vagal sensory neuron subtypes that differentially control breathing.” Cell 161, no. 3 (2015): 622-633.
    48. Eckberg, DWAIN L., and MARYA J. Eckberg. “Human sinus node responses to repetitive, ramped carotid baroreceptor stimuli.” American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 242, no.
    4 (1982): H638-H644.
    49. Canning, Brendan J. “Reflex regulation of airway smooth muscle
    tone.” Journal of applied physiology 101, no. 3 (2006): 971-985.
    50. Farrow, John T., and Russell J. Hebert. “Breath suspension during the
    transcendental meditation technique.” Psychosomatic medicine 44,
    no. 2 (1982): 133-153.
    51. Bhargava, R., M. G. Gogate, and J. F. Mascarenhas. “Autonomic
    responses to breath holding and its variations following pranayama.”
    Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 32, no. 4 (1988): 257-64.
    52. Al Haddad, Hani, Paul B. Laursen, Said Ahmaidi, and Martin Bu- chheit. “Influence of cold water face immersion on post-exercise
    parasympathetic reactivation.” European journal of applied physiology
    108, no. 3 (2010): 599-606.
    53. Jungmann, Manuela, Shervin Vencatachellum, Dimitri Van Ry-
    ckeghem, and Claus Vögele. “Effects of Cold Stimulation on Cardi- ac-Vagal Activation in Healthy Participants: Randomized Controlled Trial.” JMIR Formative Research 2, no. 2 (2018): e10257.
    54. Shattock, Michael J., and Michael J. Tipton. “‘Autonomic conflict’: a different way to die during cold water immersion?.” The Journal of physiology 590, no. 14 (2012): 3219-3230.
    55. Porges, Stephen W. “The polyvagal theory: new insights into adaptive reactions of the autonomic nervous system.” Cleveland Clinic journal of medicine 76, no. Suppl 2 (2009): S86.
    56. Field, Tiffany, and Miguel Diego. “Vagal activity, early growth and emotional development.” Infant Behavior and Development 31, no. 3 (2008): 361-373.
    57. Peck, Sharik. “An understanding Of The Trigeminal/Vagus Nerve Re- lationship Can Help One Tune Out Pain And Fear Part 1: Changing the Face of Pain.” OralhealthGroup. com, March 1, 2018. www.oral- lationship-can-help-one-tune-pain-fear-part-1-changing-face-pain/ (accessed July 8, 2020).
    58. Bordoni, Bruno, Fabiola Marelli, and Giovannni Bordoni. “A review of analgesic and emotive breathing: a multidisciplinary approach.” Journal of multidisciplinary healthcare 9 (2016): 97.
    59. Bernardi, Luciano, Alessandra Gabutti, Cesare Porta, and Lucia Spicuzza. “Slow breathing reduces chemoreflex response to hypoxia and hypercapnia, and increases baroreflex sensitivity.” Journal of hypertension 19, no. 12 (2001): 2221-2229.
    60. Dick, Thomas E., Joseph R. Mims, Yee-Hsee Hsieh, Kendall F. Mor- ris, and Erica A. Wehrwein. “Increased cardio-respiratory coupling evoked by slow deep breathing can persist in normal humans.” Respi- ratory physiology & neurobiology 204 (2014): 99-111.
    61. Keen, Cynthia E. “Can decelerated breathing confer health ben- efits?.” Physics World. Published August 26, 2019. physicsworld.
    com/a/can-decelerated-breathing-confer-health-benefits/ (accessed
    November 12, 2019).
    62. Bernardi, Luciano. “Slow breathing, so simple – so complex.” Folkhäl-
    san Research Center, university of Helsinki, Finland.
    63. Lin, I. M., L. Y. Tai, and Sheng-Yu Fan. “Breathing at a rate of 5.5
    breaths per minute with equal inhalation-to-exhalation ratio increases heart rate variability.” International Journal of Psychophysiology 91, no. 3 (2014): 206-211.
    64. Clarke, John. “Soothe Your Nervous System with 2-to-1 Breathing.” Yoga International. nervous-system-with-2-to-1-breathing (accessed November 12, 2019).
    65. Bernardi, Luciano, Peter Sleight, Gabriele Bandinelli, Simone Cencetti, Lamberto Fattorini, Johanna Wdowczyc-Szulc, and Alfonso Lagi. “Effect of rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic car- diovascular rhythms: comparative study.” Bmj 323, no. 7327 (2001): 1446-1449.
    66. Lehmann, J. “Die Kreuzfahrer, Munich (C. Bertelsmann Verlag) 1976.” (1976).
    67. Hyde, Ida Henrietta, and W. Scalapino. “The influence of music upon electrocardiograms and blood pressure.” American Journal of Physi- ology-Legacy Content 46, no. 1 (1918): 35-38.
    68. “Vagus Nerve Stimulation.” Wim Hof Method. www.wimhofmethod. com/ vagus-nerve-stimulation (accessed November 12, 2019).
    69. Bernardi, Luciano, Cesare Porta, and Peter Sleight. “Cardiovascular,
    cerebrovascular, and respiratory changes induced by different types of music in musicians and non-musicians: the importance of silence.” Heart 92, no. 4 (2006): 445-452.
    70. Okada, Kaoru, Akira Kurita, Bonpei Takase, Toshiaki Otsuka, Eitaro Kodani, Yoshiki Kusama, Hirotsugu Atarashi, and Kyoichi Mizuno. “Effects of music therapy on autonomic nervous system activity, inci- dence of heart failure events, and plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels in elderly patients with cerebrovascular disease and dementia.” International heart journal 50, no. 1 (2009): 95-110.
    71. Lee, Yaw-Chern, Chun-Yang Lei, Yi-Sen Shih, Wen-Chih zhang, Hui-Min Wang, ChengLung Tseng, Mark C. Hou, Hui-Ya Chiang, and Sheng-Chieh Huang. “HRV response of vegetative state patient with music therapy.” In 2011 Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, pp. 1701-1704. IEEE, 2011. Riganello, Francesco, Maria D. Cortese, Francesco Arcuri, Maria Quintieri, and Giuliano Dolce. “How can music influence the auto- nomic nervous system response in patients with severe disorder of consciousness?.” Frontiers in neuroscience 9 (2015): 461.
    72. Pöyhönen, M., S. Syväoja, J. Hartikainen, E. Ruokonen, and J. Takala. “The effect of carbon dioxide, respiratory rate and tidal volume on human heart rate variability.” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica 48, no. 1 (2004): 93-101.
    1. Key, Josephine. “‘The core’: understanding it, and retraining its dysfunction.” Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 17, no. 4 (2013): 541-559.
    2. Kiesel, Kyle, Tonya Rhodes, Jacob Mueller, Alyssa Waninger, and Robert Butler. “Development of a screening protocol to identify in- dividuals with dysfunctional breathing.” International journal of sports physical therapy 12, no. 5 (2017): 774.
    3. Chaitow, Leon, Dinah Bradley, and Christopher Gilbert. Multidis- ciplinary approaches to breathing pattern disorders. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2002.
    4. Kovar, Elizabeth. “Core-strengthening Exercises That Help With Back Injury Rehab.” Published October 30, 2014. core-strengthening-exercises-that-help-with-back-injury-rehab/ (accessed, August 11, 2020).
    5. Lum, L. C. “Hyperventilation syndromes in medicine and psychiatry: a review.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 80, no. 4 (1987): 229-231.
    6. Thomas, Mike, Robert K. McKinley, Elaine Freeman, Chris Foy, and David Price. “The prevalence of dysfunctional breathing in adults in the community with and without asthma.” Primary Care Respiratory Journal 14, no. 2 (2005): 78-82.
    7. Katon, Wayne J., and Edward A. Walker. “Medically unexplained symptoms in primary care.” The Journal of clinical psychiatry (1998).
    8. Chaitow, L. “Breathing pattern disorders and lumbopelvic pain and dysfunction. an update.” (2012).
    9. McGill, S.M., 2009. Quoted In: Reynolds G. “Is Your Ab Workout
    10. Hurting You Back?”. New York Times, June 17, 2009.
    11. Cavaggioni, Luca, Lucio Ongaro, Emanuela zannin, F. Marcello
    Iaia, and Giampietro Alberti. “Effects of different core exercises on respiratory parameters and abdominal strength.” Journal of physical therapy science 27, no. 10 (2015): 3249-3253. Stephens, Rylee J., Mitchell Haas, William L. Moore III, Jordan R. Emmil, Jayson A. Sipress, and Alex Williams. “Effects of diaphrag- matic breathing patterns on balance: a preliminary clinical trial.” Journal of manipulative and physiological therapeutics 40, no. 3 (2017): 169-175.
    12. Bundy, Mike & Andy Leaver. “Injury prevention.” A Guide to Sports and Injury Management, 2010.
    13. Radebold, Andrea, Jacek Cholewicki, Gert K. Polzhofer, and Hunter S. Greene. “Impaired postural control of the lumbar spine is asso- ciated with delayed muscle response times in patients with chronic idiopathic low back pain.” Spine 26, no. 7 (2001): 724-730.
    14. O’Sullivan, Peter B., and Darren J. Beales. “Changes in pelvic floor and diaphragm kinematics and respiratory patterns in subjects with sacroiliac joint pain following a motor learning intervention: a case series.” Manual therapy 12, no. 3 (2007): 209-218.
    15. Fatoye, Francis, Tadesse Gebrye, and Isaac Odeyemi. “Real-world incidence and prevalence of low back pain using routinely collected data.” Rheumatology international 39, no. 4 (2019): 619-626.
    16. Hodges, Paul W., AE Martin Eriksson, Debra Shirley, and Simon C. Gandevia. “Intra-abdominal pressure increases stiffness of the lumbar spine.” Journal of biomechanics 38, no. 9 (2005): 1873-1880.
    17. Kocjan, Janusz, Bożena Gzik-zroska, Katarzyna Nowakowska, Michał Burkacki, Sławomir Suchoń, Robert Michnik, Damian Czyżewski, and Mariusz Adamek. “Impact of diaphragm function parameters on balance maintenance.” PloS One 13, no. 12 (2018).
    18. Watson, Alan. “Breathing in singing.” In The Oxford Handbook of Singing. 2014.
    19. Spiesshoefer, Jens, Simon Herkenrath, Carolin Henke, Lisa Langen- bruch, Marike Schneppe, Winfried Randerath, Peter Young, Tobias Brix, and Matthias Boentert. “Evaluation of Respiratory Muscle Strength and Diaphragm ultrasound: Normative Values, Theoretical Considerations, and Practical Recommendations.” Respiration 99, no. 5 (2020): 369-381.
    20. Singh, u. P. “Evidence-Based Role of Hypercapnia and Exhalation Phase in Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Insights into Hypercapnic Yoga Breathing Exercises.” J Yoga Phys Ther 7, no. 276 (2017): 2.
    21. Bradley, Helen, and Joseph Dr Esformes. “Breathing pattern disorders and functional movement.” International journal of sports physical therapy 9, no. 1 (2014): 28.
    22. O’Sullivan, Peter B., Kirsty M. Grahamslaw, Michelle Kendell, Shaun C. Lapenskie, Nina
    E. Möller, and Karen V. Richards. “The effect of different standing and sitting postures on trunk muscle activity in a pain-free popula-
    tion.” Spine 27, no. 11 (2002): 1238-1244.
    24. Chapman, Erin B., Jena Hansen-Honeycutt, Alan Nasypany, Russell
    T. Baker, and Jim May. “A clinical guide to the assessment and treat- ment of breathing pattern disorders in the physically active: Part 1.” International journal of sports physical therapy 11, no. 5 (2016): 803.
    25. Travis, Frederick, Karen Blasdell, Robert Liptak, Stuart zisman, Ken Daley, and John Douillard. “Invincible Athletics program: Aerobic exercise and performance without strain.” International Journal of Neuroscience 85, no. 3-4 (1996): 301-308.
    26. Hootman, Jennifer M., Randall Dick, and Julie Agel. “Epidemiology of collegiate injuries for 15 sports: summary and recommendations for injury prevention initiatives.” Journal of athletic training 42, no. 2 (2007): 311.
    27. Litchfield, Peter, Sandra Reamer. “Learn to Screen Clients for Dysfunctional Breathing Habits – Are breathing mechanics aligned with respiratory chemistry?.” Professional School of Behavioral Health Sciences, July 2019. uploads/2019/07/Screen-for-Habits.pdf (accessed. July 13, 2020).
    28. Perri, Maria A., and Elizabeth Halford. “Pain and faulty breathing: a pilot study.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, no. 4 (2004): 297-306.
    29. Joyner, Michael J., and Darren P. Casey. “Regulation of increased blood flow (hyperemia) to muscles during exercise: a hierarchy of competing physiological needs.” Physiological reviews 95, no. 2 (2015): 549-601.
    30. Lee, Jane. “How Diving Mammals Stay underwater for So Long.” National Geographic. Published June 15, 2013. www.nationalgeo- gen-ocean-science/ (accessed April 24, 2020).
    31. Jash, Sukanta, and Samit Adhya. “Effects of transient hypoxia versus prolonged hypoxia on satellite cell proliferation and differentiation in vivo.” Stem cells international 2015 (2015).
    32. Wikipedia contributors, “Myosatellite cell,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https:// lite_cell&oldid=950395924 (accessed April 25, 2020).
    33. Ferreira, Inês Raquel Antunes. “Effect of intermittent hypobaric hypoxia on induced muscle injury repair in laboratory rats.” Master’s thesis, 2012.
    34. Sakai, Yoshitada, Masahiko Miwa, Keisuke Oe, Takeshi ueha, Akihi- ro Koh, Takahiro Niikura, Takashi Iwakura, Sang Yang Lee, Masaya Tanaka, and Masahiro Kurosaka. “A novel system for transcutaneous application of carbon dioxide causing an “artificial Bohr effect” in the human body.” PLoS One 6, no. 9 (2011): e24137. Akahane, Shiho, Yoshitada Sakai, Takeshi ueha, Hanako Nishimoto, Miho Inoue, Takahiro Niikura, and Ryosuke Kuroda. “Transcutane- ous carbon dioxide application accelerates muscle injury repair in rat models.” International orthopaedics 41, no. 5 (2017): 1007-1015.
    35. McConnell, Alison, and Alison McConnell. Breathe strong, perform better. United States of America: Human Kinetics, 2011.
    36. Wagner, Wendi, Andrew P. Breksa, Arthur F. Monzingo, Dean R. Appling, and Jon D. Robertus. “Kinetic and structural analysis of active site mutants of monofunctional NAD-dependent 5, 10-meth- ylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase from Saccharomyces cerevisi- ae.” Biochemistry 44, no. 39 (2005): 13163-13171.
    37. Pedersen, Bente Klarlund, and Bengt Saltin. “Exercise as medicine– evidence for prescribing exercise as therapy in 26 different chronic diseases.” Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports 25 (2015): 1-72.
    38. Bye, P. T. P., G. A. Farkas, and C. H. Roussos. “Respiratory factors limiting exercise.”Annual review of physiology 45, no. 1 (1983): 439- 451.
    39. Noakes, T. “Lore of running. Champaign, IL.” (1991).
    40. Amann, Markus. “Pulmonary system limitations to endurance
    exercise performance in humans.” Experimental physiology 97, no. 3
    (2012): 311-318.
    41. Ramsook, Andrew H., Ryan Koo, Yannick Molgat-Seon, Paolo B.
    Dominelli, Nafeez Syed, Christopher J. Ryerson, Andrew W. Sheel, and Jordan A. Guenette. “Diaphragm Recruitment Increases during a Bout of Targeted Inspiratory Muscle Training.” Medicine and science in sports and exercise 48, no. 6 (2016): 1179-1186.
    42. Cross, Troy J., Toni Breskovic, Surendran Sabapathy, P. Maslov zubin, Bruce D. Johnson, and zeljko Dujic. “Respiratory muscle pressure development during breath holding in apnea divers.” Medicine and science in sports and exercise 45, no. 1 (2013): 93-101.
    43. Karaula, Dajana, Jan Homolak, and Goran Leko. “Effects of hyper- capnic-hypoxic training on respiratory muscle strength and front crawl stroke performance among elite swimmers.” Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise 18, no. 1 (2016): 17-24.
    44. McConnell, A. K., and L. M. Romer. “Respiratory muscle training in healthy humans: resolving the controversy.” International journal of sports medicine 25, no. 04 (2004): 284-293.
    45. Griffiths, Lisa A., and Alison K. McConnell. “The influence of inspi- ratory and expiratory muscle training upon rowing performance.” European journal of applied physiology 99, no. 5 (2007): 457-466.
    46. Romer, Lee M., Alison K. McConnell, and David A. Jones. “Inspira- tory muscle fatigue in trained cyclists: effects of inspiratory muscle

    training.” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 34, no. 5 (2002):
    48. Johnson, Michael A., Graham R. Sharpe, and Peter I. Brown. “Inspi-
    ratory muscle training improves cycling time-trial performance and anaerobic work capacity but not critical power.” European journal of applied physiology 101, no. 6 (2007): 761-770.
    49. NHS. “Nijmegen Questionnaire.” www. heartofengland.nhs. uk/wp-content/uploads/Nijmegen_Question- naire.pdf (accessed August 13, 2020).
    1. ATIPT. “ACL Tears and Knee Pain More Common for Women with Activity.” ATI Physical Therapy. Published May 8, 2014. www.atipt. com/blog/acl-tears-and-knee-pain-more-common-for-women- with-activity (accessed August 11, 2020).
    2. Willson, John D., Christopher P. Dougherty, Mary Lloyd Ireland, and Irene McClay Davis. “Core stability and its relationship to lower extremity function and injury.” Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons13, no. 5 (2005): 316-325.
    3. Chaitow, Leon. “Breathing Pattern Disorders (BPD), motor control, and Low Back Pain.”
    4. Ingraham, Paul. “How dysfunctional breathing might be a root cause of a variety of common upper body pain problems and injuries.” Pain-, updated September13, 2016. articles/respiration-connection.php (accessed August 11, 2020).
    5. Hoff, J. I., B. R. Bloem, M. D. Ferrari, and G. J. Lammers. “A breath- taking headache.”Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 75, no. 3 (2004): 509-509.
    6. Hallman, David M., and Eugene Lyskov. “Autonomic regulation, physical activity and perceived stress in subjects with musculoskel- etal pain: 24-hour ambulatory monitoring.” International Journal of Psychophysiology 86, no. 3 (2012): 276-282.
    7. Davies, Clair, and Amber Davies. The trigger point therapy workbook: Your self-treatment guide for pain relief. New Harbinger Publica- tions, 2013.
    8. McNulty, Walter H., Richard N. Gevirtz, David R. Hubbard, and Gregory M. Berkoff. “Needle electromyographic evaluation of trigger point response to a psychological stressor.” Psychophysiology 31, no. 3 (1994): 313-316.
    9. Jafari, Hassan, Ali Gholamrezaei, Mathijs Franssen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Qasim Aziz, Omer Van den Bergh, Johan WS Vlaeyen, and Ilse Van Diest. “Can slow deep breathing reduce pain? An experimental study exploring mechanisms.” The Journal of Pain (2020).
    10. Hansen-Honeycutt, Jena, Erin B. Chapman, Alan Nasypany, Russell T. Baker, and Jim May. “A clinical guide to the assessment and treat- ment of breathing pattern disorders in the physically active: part 2, a
    case series.” International journal of sports physical therapy 11, no. 6
    (2016): 971.
    11. Mehling, Wolf E., Kathryn A. Hamel, Michael Acree, Nancy Byl, and
    Frederick M. Hecht. “Randomized controlled trial of breath therapy for patients with chronic low-back pain.” Alternative therapies in health and medicine 11, no. 4 (2005): 44-53.
    12. Hruska Jr, Ronald J. “Dysfunctional Respiratory Mechanics on Oro- facial Pain.” Dental Clinics of North America 41, no. 2 (1997): 211.
    13. De Troyer, André, and Marc Estenne. “Coordination between rib cage muscles and diaphragm during quiet breathing in humans.” Jour- nal of Applied Physiology 57, no. 3 (1984): 899-906.
    14. Jalil, Nizar Abd, Mohammad Saufi Awang, and Mahamarowi Omar. “Scalene myofascial pain syndrome mimicking cervical disc prolapse: a report of two cases.” The Malaysian journal of medical sciences: MJMS 17, no. 1 (2010): 60.
    15. Schleifer, Lawrence M., Ronald Ley, and Thomas W. Spalding. “A hyperventilation theory of job stress and musculoskeletal disorders.” American journal of industrial medicine 41, no. 5 (2002): 420-432.
    16. Terekhin, Pavel, and Clemens Forster. “Hypocapnia related changes in pain-induced brain activation as measured by functional MRI.” Neuroscience letters 400, no. 1-2 (2006): 110-114.
    17. Clausen, Tobias, Alexander Scharf, Matthias Menzel, Jens Soukup, Carsten Holz, Andreas Rieger, Frank Hanisch et al. “Influence of moderate and profound hyperventilation on cerebral blood flow, oxygenation and metabolism.” Brain research 1019, no. 1-2 (2004): 113-123.
    18. Mayo Clinic Staff. “Peripheral Nerve Injuries.” www. toms-causes/syc-20355631 (accessed July 22, 2020).
    19. Perri, Maria A., and Elizabeth Halford. “Pain and faulty breathing: a pilot study.” Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies 8, no. 4 (2004): 297-306.
    20. Macefield, Gary, and David Burke. “Paraesthesiae and tetany induced by voluntary hyperventilation: increased excitability of human cuta- neous and motor axons.” Brain 114, no. 1 (1991): 527-540.
    21. Bordoni, Bruno, and Fabiola Marelli. “Failed back surgery syndrome: review and new hypotheses.” Journal of pain research 9 (2016): 17.
    22. Kang, Jim-Yi, Dong-Kwon Seo, Ju-Chul Cho, and Byoung-Kwon Lee. “Effectiveness of Breathing Exercises on Spinal Posture, Mobility and Stabilization in Patients with Lumbar Instability.” Korean Society of
    Physical Medicine 13, no. 3 (2018): 81-89.
    23. Bahr, Roald, Stig Ove Andersen, Sverre Løken, Bjørn Fossan, Torger
    Hansen, and Ingar Holme. “Low back pain among endurance athletes with and without specific back loading—a cross-sectional survey of cross-country skiers, rowers, orienteerers, and nonathletic controls.” Spine 29, no. 4 (2004): 449-454.
    24. Clifton-Smith, T. (2017) Breathing Pattern Disorders and the Ath- lete
    25. McLaughlin, Laurie, Charlie H. Goldsmith, and Kimberly Coleman. “Breathing evaluation and retraining as an adjunct to manual thera- py.” Manual therapy 16, no. 1 (2011): 51-52.
    26. Stanton, Tasha R., Hayley B. Leake, K. Jane Chalmers, and G. Lorimer Moseley. “Evidence of impaired proprioception in chronic, idiopathic neck pain: systematic review and meta-analysis.” Physical therapy 96, no. 6 (2016): 876-887.
    27. Lewit, Karel. Manipulative therapy in rehabilitation of the locomotor system. Butterworth-Heinemann Medical, 1999.
    28. Yeampattanaporn, Orawan, Keerin Mekhora, Wattana Jalayondeja, and Jatuporn Wongsathikun. “Immediate effects of breathing re-ed- ucation on respiratory function and range of motion in chronic neck pain.” Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand Chotmaihet thangphaet 97 (2014): S55-9.
    29. Gonzalez, Humberto E., and Arturo Manns. “Forward head posture: its structural and functional influence on the stomatognathic system, a conceptual study.” CRANIO® 14, no. 1 (1996): 71-80.
    30. Neiva, Patricia Dayrell, Renata Noce Kirkwood, Polyana Leite Mendes, Karl zabjek, Helena Gonçalves Becker, and Sunita Mathur. “Postural disorders in mouth breathing children: a systematic review.” Brazilian journal of physical therapy 22, no. 1 (2018): 7-19.
    31. da Silveira, Waleska, Fernanda Carvalho de Queiroz Mello, Fernan- do Silva Guimarães, and Sara Lucia Siveira de Menezes. “Postural alterations and pulmonary function of mouth-breathing children.” Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology 76, no. 6 (2010): 683-686.
    32. Lundberg, ulf, Roland Kadefors, Bo Melin, Gunnar Palmerud, Peter Hassmén, Margareta Engström, and Ingela Elfsberg Dohns. “Psycho- physiological stress and EMG activity of the trapezius muscle.” Inter- national journal of behavioral medicine 1, no. 4 (1994): 354-370.
    33. Jones, Frank Pierce, and John L. Kennedy. “An electromyographic technique for recording the startle pattern.” The Journal of Psycholo- gy 32, no. 1 (1951): 63-68.
    34. Brown, P., J. C. Rothwell, P. D. Thompson, T. C. Britton, B. L. Day, and C. D. Marsden. “New observations on the normal auditory startle reflex in man.” Brain 114, no. 4 (1991): 1891-1902.
    35. Bartley, Jim. “Breathing and temporomandibular joint disease.” Jour-
    nal of Bodywork and movement therapies 15, no. 3 (2011): 291-297.
    36. Winocur, Ephraim, Anat Gavish, Michal Voikovitch, Alona Emo-
    di-Perlman, and Ilana Eli. “Drugs and bruxism: a critical review.”
    Journal of orofacial pain 17, no. 2 (2003).
    37. Lareb. “SSRIs and venlafaxine in association with bruxism.” Data- Published 2007.
    loads/kwb_2006_2_ssri.pdf (accessed July 22, 2020).
    38. Godoy, Daniel Agustín, Ali Seifi, David Garza, Santiago Lubillo-Mon-
    tenegro, and Francisco Murillo-Cabezas. “Hyperventilation therapy for control of posttraumatic intracranial hypertension.” Frontiers in neurology 8 (2017): 250.
    39. Kato, Takafumi. “Sleep bruxism and its relation to obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome.” Sleep and Biological Rhythms 2, no. 1 (2004): 1-15.
    40. Hosoya, Hisashi, Hideki Kitaura, Takashi Hashimoto, Mau Ito, Mas- ayuki Kinbara, Toru Deguchi, Toshiya Irokawa, Noriko Ohisa, Hiro- masa Ogawa, and Teruko Takano-Yamamoto. “Relationship between sleep bruxism and sleep respiratory events in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.” Sleep and Breathing 18, no. 4 (2014): 837- 844.
    41. Olmos, Steven R., Franklin Garcia-Godoy, Timothy L. Hottel, and N. Q. Tran. “Headache and jaw locking comorbidity with daytime sleepiness.” American journal of dentistry 29, no. 3 (2016): 161-165.
    42. Maixner, William, Joel D. Greenspan, Ronald Dubner, Eric Bair, Flora Mulkey, Vanessa Miller, Charles Knott et al. “Potential autonomic risk factors for chronic TMD: descriptive data and empirically identified domains from the OPPERA case-control study.” The Journal of Pain 12, no. 11 (2011): T75-T91.
    43. Chinthakanan, Suruedee, Kittipong Laosuwan, Pattriyaporn Boon- yawong, Sirinart Kumfu, Nipon Chattipakorn, and Siriporn C. Chatti- pakorn. “Reduced heart rate variability and increased saliva cortisol in patients with TMD.” Archives of oral biology 90 (2018): 125-129.
    44. Chaitow, Leon. “How Breath Can Impact Fibromyalgia Pain.” Associ- ated Bodywork & Massage Professionals, January/February 2017.
    45. Cho, Byungyun, and Junggyu Yoon. “Relationship between Breathing Pattern Disorder and Joint Position Sense in Patients with Chronic Low Back Pain.” Journal of The Korean Society of Integrative Medi- cine 7, no. 2 (2019): 1-10.
    46. de Vries, Jurryt, B. K. Ischebeck, L. P. Voogt, J. N. Van Der Geest, Malou Janssen, M.A. Frens, and Gert Jan Kleinrensink. “Joint position sense error in people with neck pain: a systematic review.” Manual therapy 20, no. 6 (2015): 736-744.
    47. Griffin Occupational Therapy. “Let’s talk about Proprioception – our
    hidden sixth sense!”
    prioception/ (accessed July 23, 2020).
    48. Wikipedia contributors, “Muscle spindle,” Wikipedia, The Free Ency-
    clopedia, https://
    dle&oldid=939086497 (accessed May 4, 2020).
    49. Stanton, Tasha R., Hayley B. Leake, K. Jane Chalmers, and G.
    Lorimer Moseley. “Evidence of impaired proprioception in chronic, idiopathic neck pain: systematic review and meta-analysis.” Physical therapy 96, no. 6 (2016): 876-887.
    50. Dinkins, Eric M. “Joint Positional Error. Seeing the World Normal Again: an investigation into joint positional error.” Motion Guid- ance. Published April 10, 2016. motion-guidance-blog/seeing-the-world-normal-again-an-investiga- tion-into-joint-positional-error (accessed May 4, 2020).
    51. Panjabi, Manohar M. “The stabilizing system of the spine. Part I. Function, dysfunction, adaptation, and enhancement.” Journal of spinal disorders 5 (1992): 383-383.
    52. Sakellari, V., A. M. Bronstein, S. Corna, C. A. Hammon, S. Jones, and C. J. Wolsley. “The effects of hyperventilation on postural control mechanisms.” Brain: a journal of neurology120, no. 9 (1997): 1659- 1673.
    53. Janssens, Lotte, Simon Brumagne, Kathelijn Polspoel, Thierry Troost- ers, and Alison McConnell. “The effect of inspiratory muscles fatigue on postural control in people with and without recurrent low back pain.” Spine 35, no. 10 (2010): 1088-1094.
    54. Jafari, Hassan, Ali Gholamrezaei, Mathijs Franssen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Qasim Aziz, Omer Van den Bergh, Johan WS Vlaeyen, and Ilse Van Diest. “Can slow deep breathing reduce pain? An experi- mental study exploring mechanisms.” The Journal of Pain (2020).
    55. Simons, David G., Janet G. Travell, and Lois S. Simons. Myofascial pain and dysfunction: upper half of body. Williams & Wilkins, 1999.
    56. Musnick D. “Pain sensitization and chronic musculoskeletal pain.” 15th International Functional Medicine Symposium (2008).
    1. Jerath, Ravinder, Connor Beveridge, and Vernon A. Barnes. “Self-regulation of breathing as an adjunctive treatment of insomnia.” Frontiers in psychiatry 9 (2019): 780. Kim, Eun Joong, Ji Ho Choi, Kang Woo Kim, Tae Hoon
    2. Kim, Sang Hag Lee, Heung Man Lee, Chol Shin, Ki Yeol Lee, and Seung Hoon Lee. “The impacts of open-mouth breathing on up- per airway space in obstructive sleep apnea: 3-D MDCT analysis.” European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 268, no. 4 (2011): 533-539.
    3. Kreivi, Hanna-Riikka, Paula Virkkula, Juho Lehto, and Pirkko Brander. “Frequency of upper airway symptoms before and during continuous positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.” Respiration 80, no. 6 (2010): 488-494.
    4. Ohki, M., N. usui, H. Kanazawa, I. Hara, and K. Kawano. “Relation- ship between oral breathing and nasal obstruction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.” Acta oto-laryngologica. Supplementum 523 (1996): 228-230.
    5. Šimiü, Josip, and Mladenka Vukojeviü. «Study of depression and anxiety in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.» Psychiatria Danubina 31, no. 1 (2019): S112-S117.
    6. Lavie, P. “Rediscovering the importance of nasal breathing in sleep or, shut your mouth and save your sleep.” The Journal of Laryngology & Otology 101, no. 6 (1987): 558-563.
    7. Madronio, M. R., Emily Di Somma, Rosie Stavrinou, J. P. Kirkness, Erica Goldfinch, J.R. Wheatley, and Terence C. Amis. “Older indi- viduals have increased oro-nasal breathing during sleep.” European Respiratory Journal 24, no. 1 (2004): 71-77.
    8. Warren, Donald W., W. Michael Hairfield, Debra Seaton, Kathleen E. Morr, and Lynn R. Smith. “The relationship between nasal airway size and nasal-oral breathing.” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 93, no. 4 (1988): 289-293.
    9. Basta, Maria, George P. Chrousos, Antonio Vela-Bueno, and Alex- andros N. Vgontzas. “Chronic insomnia and the stress system.” Sleep medicine clinics 2, no. 2 (2007): 279-291.
    10. Tsai, H. J., Terry BJ Kuo, Guo-She Lee, and Cheryl CH Yang. “Ef- ficacy of paced breathing for insomnia: enhances vagal activity and improves sleep quality.” Psychophysiology 52, no. 3 (2015): 388- 396.
    11. Hargens, Trent A., Anthony S. Kaleth, Elizabeth S. Edwards, and Katrina L. Butner. “Association between sleep disorders, obesity, and exercise: a review.” Nature and science of sleep 5 (2013): 27.
    12. Westerlund, Anna, Rino Bellocco, Johan Sundström, Hans-Olov Adami, Torbjörn Åkerstedt, and Ylva Trolle Lagerros. “Sleep charac- teristics and cardiovascular events in a large Swedish cohort.” Europe- an journal of epidemiology 28, no. 6 (2013): 463-473.
    13. CDC “Short Sleep Duration Among uS Adults–Data and Statistics. Sleep and Sleep Disorders.” CDC. Published 2017, sleep/data_statistics.html (accessed February 27, 2020). CDC. “1 in 3 Adults Don’t Get Enough Sleep.” CDC Newsroom. Published February 18, 2016. p0215-enough-sleep.html.
    14. Walsh, James K., Catherine Coulouvrat, Goeran Hajak, Matthew D. Lakoma, Maria Petukhova, Thomas Roth, Nancy A. Sampson et al. “Nighttime insomnia symptoms and perceived health in the America Insomnia Survey (AIS).” Sleep 34, no. 8 (2011): 997-1011.
    15. Riemann, Dieter, Kai Spiegelhalder, Bernd Feige, ulrich Voderholzer, Mathias Berger, Michael Perlis, and Christoph Nissen. “The hyper- arousal model of insomnia: a review of the concept and its evidence.” Sleep medicine reviews 14, no. 1 (2010): 19-31.
    16. Tefft, Brian C. Prevalence of motor vehicle crashes involving drowsy drivers, united States, 2009-2013. Washington, DC: AAA Founda- tion for Traffic Safety, 2014.
    17. Hafner, Marco, Martin Stepanek, Jirka Taylor, Wendy M. Troxel, and Christian Van Stolk. “Why sleep matters—the economic costs of insufficient sleep: a cross-country comparative analysis.” Rand health quarterly 6, no. 4 (2017).
    18. Daugherty, J., L. Hendricks, and Chris Simpson. “Sleep aids: seda- tive-hypnotic drugs in america.” In Natl Forum J Counsel Addict, vol. 3. 2014.
    19. Mendels, Joseph. “Criteria for selection of appropriate benzodiaze- pine hypnotic therapy.” The Journal of clinical psychiatry (1991).
    20. Cabiddu, Ramona, Sergio Cerutti, Sandra Werner, Geoffrey Viardot, and Anna M. Bianchi. “Modulation of the sympatho-vagal balance during sleep: frequency domain study of heart rate variability and respiration.” Frontiers in physiology 3 (2012): 45.
    21. Harinath, Kasiganesan, Anand Sawarup Malhotra, Karan Pal, Rajen- dra Prasad, Rajesh Kumar, Trilok Chand Kain, Lajpat Rai, and Ramesh Chand Sawhney. “Effects of Hatha yoga and Omkar meditation on cardiorespiratory performance, psychologic profile, and melatonin secretion.” The Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine 10, no. 2 (2004): 261-268.
    22. Nishiyama, Koichi, Hirofumi Yasue, Yasushi Moriyama, Ryusuke Tsunoda, Hisao Ogawa, Michihiro Yoshimura, and Kiyotaka Kugiyama. “Acute effects of melatonin administration on cardiovascular auto- nomic regulation in healthy men.” American heart journal 141, no. 5 (2001): 13A-17A.
    23. Hajak, Göran, Andrea Rodenbeck, Jürgen Staedt, Borwin Bandelow, Gerald Huether, and Eckart Rüther. “Nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in patients suffering from chronic primary insomnia.” Journal of pineal research 19, no. 3 (1995): 116-122.
    24. Grandner, Michael A., and Atul Malhotra. “Connecting insomnia, sleep apnoea and depression.” Respirology (Carlton, Vic.) 22, no. 7
    (2017): 1249.
    26. Lichstein, Kenneth L., S. Justin Thomas, Julie A. Woosley, and James
    D. Geyer. “Co-occurring insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea.”
    Sleep medicine 14, no. 9 (2013): 824-829.
    27. Yackle, Kevin, Lindsay A. Schwarz, Kaiwen Kam, Jordan M. So-
    rokin, John R. Huguenard, Jack L. Feldman, Liqun Luo, and Mark A. Krasnow. “Breathing control center neurons that promote arousal in mice.” Science 355, no. 6332 (2017): 1411-1415.
    28. Smith, Jeffrey C., Howard H. Ellenberger, Klaus Ballanyi, Diethelm W. Richter, and Jack L. Feldman. “Pre-Botzinger complex: a brain- stem region that may generate respiratory rhythm in mammals.” Science 254, no. 5032 (1991): 726-729.
    29. Gleeson, Kevin, and Clifford W. zwillich. “Adenosine stimulation, ventilation, and arousal from sleep.” American Review of Respiratory Disease 145, no. 2_pt_1 (1992): 453-457.
    30. Simon, Gregory E., and Michael VonKorff. “Prevalence, burden, and treatment of insomnia in primary care.” American Journal of Psychi- atry 154, no. 10 (1997): 1417-1423.
    31. Sheps, Sheldon G. “Sleep deprivation: A cause of high blood pres- sure.” Mayo Clinic. www. blood-pressure/expert-answers/sleep-deprivation/faq-20057959 (accessed January 8, 2020).
    32. Wikipedia contributors, “Counting sheep,”Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https:// ing_sheep&oldid=988075802 (accessed December 8, 2020).
    33. Harvey, Allison G., and Suzanna Payne. “The management of unwanted pre-sleep thoughts in insomnia: distraction with imagery versus general distraction.” Behaviour research and therapy 40, no. 3 (2002): 267-277.
    34. Salkovskis, Paul M., and Patricia Campbell. “Thought suppression induces intrusion in naturally occurring negative intrusive thoughts.” Behaviour research and therapy 32, no. 1 (1994): 1-8.
    35. Subramani, Yamini, Mandeep Singh, Jean Wong, Clete A. Kushida, Atul Malhotra, and Frances Chung. “understanding phenotypes
    of obstructive sleep apnea: applications in anesthesia, surgery, and perioperative medicine.” Anesthesia and analgesia 124, no. 1 (2017): 179.
    36. “Obstructive sleep apnea: Overview.” [Internet]. Cologne, Germany: Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG); 2006-. Published July 22, 2011 [updated Jan 2, 2019] (accessed February 29, 2020). Hirotsu, Camila, Sergio Tufik, and Monica Levy Andersen. “Sleep apnea as a potential threat to reproduction.” (2014): 1731-1732.
    37. Jordan, Amy S., David G. McSharry, and Atul Malhotra. “Adult ob- structive sleep apnoea.” The Lancet 383, no. 9918 (2014): 736-747.
    38. Osman, Amal M., Sophie G. Carter, Jayne C. Carberry, and Danny J. Eckert. “Obstructive sleep apnea: current perspectives.” Nature and science of sleep 10 (2018): 21.
    39. Appleton, Sarah L., Andrew Vakulin, R. Douglas McEvoy, Andrew Vincent, Sean A. Martin, Janet F. Grant, Anne W. Taylor et al. “un- diagnosed obstructive sleep apnea is independently associated with reductions in quality of life in middle-aged, but not elderly men of a population cohort.” Sleep and Breathing 19, no. 4 (2015): 1309-1316.
    40. Simpson, Laila, David R. Hillman, Matthew N. Cooper, Kim L. Ward, Michael Hunter, Stewart Cullen, Alan James, Lyle J. Palmer, Sutapa Mukherjee, and Peter Eastwood. “High prevalence of undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnoea in the general population and methods for screening for representative controls.” Sleep and Breathing 17, no. 3 (2013): 967-973.
    41. Kapur, Vishesh, Kingman P. Strohl, Susan Redline, Conrad Iber, George O’Connor, and Javier Nieto. “underdiagnosis of sleep apnea syndrome in uS communities.” Sleep and Breathing 6, no. 02 (2002): 049-054.
    42. Purtle, Mark W., Catherine Hackett Renner, Dustin A. McCann, James C. Mallen, Sarah K. Spilman, and Sheryl M. Sahr. “Driving with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea (OSA): High prevalence of OSA risk in drivers who experienced a motor vehicle crash.” Traffic Injury Prevention (2020): 1-4.
    43. “More than half’ of pilots have slept while flying.” BBC News. Published September 27, 2013. (accessed January 8, 2020).
    44. Mansukhani, Meghna P., Shihan Wang, and Virend K. Somers. “Sleep, death, and the heart.” American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology 309, no. 5 (2015): H739-H749.
    45. Butler, Matthew P., Jeffery T. Emch, Michael Rueschman, Scott A. Sands, Steven A. Shea, Andrew Wellman, and Susan Redline. “Ap- nea–hypopnea event duration predicts mortality in men and women in the Sleep Heart Health Study.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 99, no. 7 (2019): 903-912.
    46. Brzecka, Anna. “Role of hypercapnia in brain oxygenation in sleep-disordered breathing.” Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis 67, no. 2 (2007): 197.
    47. Punjabi, Naresh M. “Counterpoint: is the apnea-hypopnea index the best way to quantify the severity of sleep-disordered breathing? No.” Chest 149, no. 1 (2016): 16-19.
    49. Weaver, Edward M., B. Tucker Woodson, and David L. Steward.
    “Polysomnography indexes are discordant with quality of life, symp- toms, and reaction times in sleep apnea patients.” Otolaryngolo- gy-Head and Neck Surgery 132, no. 2 (2005): 255-262.
    50. Eckert, Danny J., David P. White, Amy S. Jordan, Atul Malhotra, and Andrew Wellman. “Defining phenotypic causes of obstructive sleep apnea. Identification of novel therapeutic targets.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 188, no. 8 (2013): 996- 1004.
    51. Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy R., and Tina E. Waters. “Sleep-disordered breathing.” Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology 23, no. 4 (2017): 1093-1116.
    52. Nice. “Hypoglossal nerve stimulation for moderate to severe obstruc- tive sleep apnoea.” NICE, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Published November 2017. www. IPG598/InformationForPublic (accessed February 29, 2020).
    53. Shah, Janki, Jonathon O. Russell, Tina Waters, Alan H. Kominsky, and Douglas Trask. “uvulopalatopharyngoplasty vs CN XII stimulation for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea: a single institution experi- ence.” American journal of otolaryngology 39, no. 3 (2018): 266- 270.
    54. Koutsourelakis, I., E. Vagiakis, C. Roussos, and S. zakynthinos. “Obstructive sleep apnoea and oral breathing in patients free of nasal obstruction.” European Respiratory Journal 28, no. 6 (2006): 1222- 1228.
    55. Hsu, Yen-Bin, Ming-Ying Lan, Yun-Chen Huang, Ming-Chang Kao, and Ming-Chin Lan. “Association Between Breathing Route, Oxygen Desaturation, and upper Airway Morphology.” The Laryngoscope (2020).
    56. Michels, Daniel de Sousa, Amanda da Mota Silveira Rodrigues, Márcio Nakanishi, André Luiz Lopes Sampaio, and Alessandra Ramos Venosa. «Nasal involvement in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.» International journal of otolaryngology 2014 (2014).
    57. Deacon, Naomi L., Rachel Jen, Yanru Li, and Atul Malhotra. “Treat- ment of obstructive sleep apnea. Prospects for personalized com- bined modality therapy.” Annals of the American Thoracic Society 13, no. 1 (2016): 101-108.
    58. Bartley, James, and Conroy Wong. “Nasal Pulmonary Interactions.” In Nasal Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nasal Disorders, pp. 559-566. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
    59. KOLÁŘ, Pavel, J. Neuwirth, J. Šanda, V. Suchanek, z. Svata, J. Volejnik, and M. Pivec. “Analysis of diaphragm movement during tidal breathing and during its activation while breath holding using MRI synchronized with spirometry.” Physiological research 58, no. 3 (2009).
    60. Hang, William M., and Michael Gelb. “Airway Centric® TMJ philos- ophy/Airway Centric® orthodontics ushers in the post-retraction world of orthodontics.” CRANIO® 35, no. 2 (2017): 68-78.
    61. Cukic, Vesna, Vladimir Lovre, and Dejan Dragisic. “Sleep disorders in patients with bronchial asthma.” Materia socio-medica 23, no. 4 (2011): 235.
    62. Julien, Joanne Y., James G. Martin, Pierre Ernst, Ronald Olivenstein, Qutayba Hamid, Catherine Lemière, Carmela Pepe, Naftaly Naor, Allen Olha, and R. John Kimoff. “Prevalence of obstructive sleep ap- nea–hypopnea in severe versus moderate asthma.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 124, no. 2 (2009): 371-376.
    63. Prasad, Bharati, Sharmilee M. Nyenhuis, and Terri E. Weaver. “Obstructive sleep apnea and asthma: associations and treatment implications.” Sleep medicine reviews 18, no. 2 (2014): 165-171.
    64. Bonekat, H. Wiliam, and Kimberly A. Hardin. “Severe upper airway obstruction during sleep.” Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology 25, no. 2 (2003): 191-210.
    65. Oksenberg, Arie, Elena Arons, Henryk Radwan, and Donald S. Silver- berg. “Positional vs nonpositional obstructive sleep apnea patients: anthropomorphic, nocturnal polysomnographic and multiple sleep latency test data.” Chest 112, no. 3 (1997): 629-639.
    66. Motta, Lara Jansiski, Joanna Carolina Bachiega, Carolina Cardoso Guedes, Lorena Tristao Laranja, and Sandra Kalil Bussadori. “Associ- ation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children.” Clinics 66, no. 6 (2011): 939-942.
    67. zaghi, Soroush, Cynthia Peterson, Shayan Shamtoob, Brigitte Fung, Daniel Kwok-keung Ng, Triin Jagomagi, Nicole Archambault et al. “Assessment of Nasal Breathing using Lip Taping: A Simple and Ef- fective Screening Tool.” International Journal of Otorhinolaryngology 6, no. 1 (2020): 10.
    68. Bachour, Adel, and Paula Maasilta. “Mouth breathing compromises adherence to nasal continuous positive airway pressure therapy.” Chest 126, no. 4 (2004): 1248-1254.
    69. Masa, Juan F., and Jaime Corral-Peñafiel. “Should use of 4 hours continuous positive airway pressure per night be considered accept- able compliance?.” (2014): 1119-1120.
    70. Repasky, David. “Why CPAP Compliance is Important & Tips on Improving Your Therapy.” Published March 11, 2019. www. (accessed July 24, 2020).
    71. American Optometric Association. “Sleep apnea’s effect on the eyes.” Published August 7, 2015. ical-eye-care/sleep-apneas-effect-on-the-eyes (accessed July 24, 2020).
    72. Celmer, Lynne. “Sleep apnea may increase risk of blindness.” Published August 9, 2013. http://sleepeducation. org/news/2013/08/09/sleep-apnea-may-increase-risk-of-blindness (accessed, July 24, 2020).
    73. McNab, Alan A. “Floppy eyelid syndrome and obstructive sleep ap- nea.” Ophthalmic Plastic & Reconstructive Surgery 13, no. 2 (1997): 98-114.
    74. Harvard Health Letter Contributors. “Blue light has a dark side.” Harvard Health Publishing. Published May 2012, updated: August 13, 2018. dark-side (accessed January 8, 2020).
    1. DeLong, G.F. Smith, John. “Habitual Mouth-Breathing and Con- sequent Malocclusion of the teeth.” The Dental cosmos; a monthly record of dental science: Volume 51, Issue 2, February, 1909, 200- 204
    2. Alqutami, J., W. Elger, N. Grafe, A. Hiemisch, W. Kiess, and C. Hirsch. “Dental health, halitosis and mouth breathing in 10-to-15 year old children: A potential connection.” European journal of paedi- atric dentistry 20, no. 4 (2019): 274.
    3. Triana, Bárbara Elena García, Ahlam Hibatulla Ali, and Ileana Bárbara Grau León. “Mouth breathing and its relationship to some oral and medical conditions: physiopathological mechanisms involved.” Revista Habanera de Ciencias Médicas 15, no. 2 (2016): 200-212.
    4. Warren, Donald W., W. Michael Hairfield, Debra Seaton, Kathleen E. Morr, and Lynn R. Smith. “The relationship between nasal airway size and nasal-oral breathing.” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 93, no. 4 (1988): 289-293.
    5. Milanesi, Jovana de Moura, Luana Cristina Berwig, Mariana Mar- quezan, Luiz Henrique Schuch, Anaelena Bragança de Moraes, Ana Maria Toniolo da Silva, and Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues Corrêa. “Vari- ables associated with mouth breathing diagnosis in children based on a multidisciplinary assessment.” In CoDAS, vol. 30, no. 4. 2018.
    6. Fields, Henry W., Donald W. Warren, Keith Black, and Ceib L. Phillips. “Relationship between vertical dentofacial morphology and respiration in adolescents.” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 99, no. 2 (1991): 147-154.
    7. Brawley, Ashley, Bernard Silverman, Shannon Kearney, Guanzon, Mark Owens, Harvey Bennett, and Arlene Schneider. “Allergic rhinitis in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity dis- order.” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 92, no. 6 (2004): 663-667.
    8. Goyal, Abhishek, Abhijit P. Pakhare, Girish C. Bhatt, Bharat Choud- hary, and Rajesh Patil. “Association of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea with poor academic performance: A school-based study from India.” Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society 35, no. 2 (2018): 132.
    9. Catalano, Peter. “understanding nasal breathing the key to evaluating and treating sleep disordered breathing in adults and children.” Cur- rent Trends in Otolaryngology and Rhinology (ISSN: 2689-7385) (2018).
    10. Bonuck, Karen, Katherine Freeman, Ronald D. Chervin, and Linzhi Xu. “Sleep-disordered breathing in a population-based cohort: behavioral outcomes at 4 and 7 years.” Pediatrics 129, no. 4 (2012): e857-e865.
    11. Won, Dana C., Christian Guilleminault, Peter J. Koltai, Stacey D. Quo, Martin T. Stein, and Irene M. Loe. “It Is Just Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder… or Is It?.” Journal of developmental and behavioral pediatrics: JDBP 38, no. 2 (2017): 169.
    12. Lee, Seo-Young, Christian Guilleminault, Hsiao-Yean Chiu, and Shannon S. Sullivan. “Mouth breathing,“nasal disuse,” and pediatric sleep-disordered breathing.” Sleep and Breathing 19, no. 4 (2015): 1257-1264.
    13. Boyd, Andy, Jean Golding, John Macleod, Debbie A. Lawlor, Abigail Fraser, John Henderson, Lynn Molloy, Andy Ness, Susan Ring, and George Davey Smith. “Cohort profile: the ‘children of the 90s’—the index offspring of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Chil- dren.” International journal of epidemiology 42, no. 1 (2013): 111-127.
    14. Fensterseifer, Giovana Serrão, Oswaldo Carpes, Luc Louis Maurice Weckx, and Viviane Feller Martha. “Mouth breathing in children with learning disorders.” Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology 79, no. 5 (2013): 620-624.
    15. Boyd, K. L., and S. H. Sheldon. “Childhood sleep-disorder breathing: a dental perspective.” Principles and practice of pediatric sleep medi- cine (2014): 273-279.
    16. Gozal, David. “Sleep-disordered breathing and school performance in children.” Pediatrics 102, no. 3 (1998): 616-620.
    17. Lin, Cheng-Hui, and Christian Guilleminault. “Current hypopnea scoring criteria underscore pediatric sleep disordered breathing.” Sleep medicine 12, no. 7 (2011): 720-729.
    18. Tilkian, Ara G., Christian Guilleminault, John S. Schroeder, Kenneth L. Lehrman, F. Blair Simmons, and William C. Dement. “Hemody- namics in sleep-induced apnea: studies during wakefulness and sleep.” Annals of Internal Medicine 85, no. 6 (1976): 714-719.
    19. World Sleep Society. “The World Says Good-bye to Christian Guil- leminault, Sleep Pioneer.” World Sleep worldsleepsoci- (accessed July 27, 2020).
    20. Guilleminault, C., and S. S. Sullivan. “Towards restoration of contin- uous nasal breathing as the ultimate treatment goal in pediatric ob- structive sleep apnea.” Enliven: Pediatr Neonatol Biol 1, no. 1 (2014): 001.
    21. Fonseca, Jéssica Danielle Medeiros da, Kadja Franciely Gomes Benício, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi, and Andrea Aliverti. “Acute effects of inspiratory loads and interfaces on breathing pattern and activity of respiratory mus- cles in healthy subjects.” Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 993.
    22. de Held, Priscila Antonichelli, Wagner de Mello, Tatiane Lopes Patrocínio da Silva, Karina Rabelo da Silva, and Valéria Amorim Pires Di Lorenzo. “Treinamento muscular e da respiração nasal em crianças respiradoras orais.” Fisioterapia em Movimento 21, no. 4 (2017).
    23. Babacan, Hasan, Oral Sokucu, Cenk Doruk, and Sinan Ay. “Rapid maxillary expansion and surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion effects on nasal volume.” The Angle Orthodontist 76, no. 1 (2006): 66-71.
    24. Basciftci, F. A., N. Mutlu, A. I. Karaman, S. Malkoc, and H. Küçük- kolbasi. “Does the timing and method of rapid maxillary expansion have an effect on the changes in nasal dimensions?.” The Angle orthodontist 72, no. 2 (2002): 118-123.
    25. Haas, Andrew J. “Rapid expansion of the maxillary dental arch and nasal cavity by opening the midpalatal suture.” The Angle Orthodon- tist 31, no. 2 (1961): 73-90.
    26. Haas, Andrew J. “The treatment of maxillary deficiency by opening the midpalatal suture.” The Angle Orthodontist 35, no. 3 (1965): 200-217.
    27. Hang, William M., and Michael Gelb. “Airway Centric® TMJ philos- ophy/Airway Centric® orthodontics ushers in the post-retraction world of orthodontics.” CRANIO® 35, no. 2 (2017): 68-78.
    28. Costa, Julia Garcia, Genilza Silva Costa, Carolina Costa, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos Vilella, Claudia Trindade Mattos, and Adriana de Alcantara Cury-Saramago. “Clinical recognition of mouth breathers by orthodontists: A preliminary study.” American Journal of Ortho- dontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 152, no. 5 (2017): 646-653.
    29. Harvold, Egil P., Britta S. Tomer, Karin Vargervik, and George Chierici. “Primate experiments on oral respiration.” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 79, no. 4 (1981): 359-
    30. Vig, Katherine WL. “Nasal obstruction and facial growth: the strength
    of evidence for clinical assumptions.” American journal of orthodon-
    tics and dentofacial orthopedics 113, no. 6 (1998): 603-611.
    31. Yamada, Tetsuro, Kazuo Tanne, Keisuke Miyamoto, and Kazuo Ya-
    mauchi. “Influences of nasal respiratory obstruction on craniofacial growth in young Macaca fuscata monkeys.” American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics 111, no. 1 (1997): 38-43.
    32. Padzys, Guy Stéphane, Jean-Marc Martrette, Christiane Tankosic, Simon Nigel Thornton, and Marie Trabalon. “Effects of short term forced oral breathing: physiological changes and structural adaptation of diaphragm and orofacial muscles in rats.” Archives of oral biology 56, no. 12 (2011): 1646-1654.
    33. Paolantonio, E. G., N. Ludovici, S. Saccomanno, G. Torre La, and C. Grippaudo. “Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion in Italian preschoolers.” European journal of paediatric dentistry 20, no. 3 (2019): 204-208.
    34. Masoud, Ahmed I., Gregory W. Jackson, and David W. Carley. “Sleep and airway assessment: a review for dentists.” Cranio® 35, no. 4 (2017): 206-222.
    35. Durdik, Peter, Anna Sujanska, Stanislava Suroviakova, Melania Evangelisti, Peter Banovcin, and Maria Pia Villa. “Sleep architecture in children with common phenotype of obstructive sleep apnea.” Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine 14, no. 01 (2018): 9-14.
    36. American Dental Association. “Airway conference gives dentists tools that can make difference in children’s lives.” Published September 7, 2018. publications/ada-news/2018- archive/september/airway-conference-gives-dentists-tools-that- can-make-difference-in-childrens-lives (accessed July 27, 2020).
    37. Brennan, William. “How Two British Orthodontists Became Celeb- rities to Incels.” New York Times. Published August 20, 2020. www. teeth-mewing-incels.html (accessed September 1, 2020).
    38. IATA. “2012 Best in History of Continuous Safety Improvements.” Published February 28, 2013. pr/2013-02-28-01/ (accessed September 1, 2020).
    39. Liu, Yi-Ping, Rolf G. Behrents, and Peter H. Buschang. “Mandibular growth, remodeling, and maturation during infancy and early child- hood.” The Angle Orthodontist 80, no. 1 (2010): 97-105.
    40. Catalano, Peter J, and John Walker. “ADD & ADHD in Children: The Answer is Right in Their Nose.” American Journal of Otolar- yngology and Head and Neck Surgery no. 1, Issue 5, Article 1025 (2018): 1-2.
    41. Cohen, Samuel Adams. “Malocclusion and its farreaching effects.”
    Journal of the American Medical Association 79, no. 23 (1922):
    42. Mewinglifestyle. “Looks Theory Importance of Forward Facial
    Growth.” Instagram. Published June 14, 2020.
    tv/CBbMDTrBJAn/?igshid=163vyjf9yhvvk (accessed July 27, 2020).
    43. Rambaud, Caroline, and Christian Guilleminault. “Death, nasomax-
    illary complex, and sleep in young children.” European journal of
    pediatrics 171, no. 9 (2012): 1349-1358.
    44. Tan, Hui-Leng, David Gozal, and Leila Kheirandish-Gozal. “Obstruc-
    tive sleep apnea in children: a critical update.” Nature and science of
    sleep 5 (2013): 109.
    45. Arens, Raanan, Joseph M. McDonough, Aaron M. Corbin, Nathania
    K. Rubin, Mary Ellen Carroll, Allan I. Pack, Jianguo Liu, and Jayaram K. udupa. “upper airway size analysis by magnetic resonance imaging of children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 167, no. 1 (2003): 65-70.
    46. Bhattacharjee, Rakesh, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal, Karen Spruyt, Ron B. Mitchell, Jungrak Promchiarak, Narong Simakajornboon, Atha- nasios G. Kaditis et al. “Adenotonsillectomy outcomes in treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children: a multicenter retrospective study.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 182, no. 5 (2010): 676-683.
    47. Warren, Donald W., Garland Hershey, Timothy A. Turvey, Virginia A. Hinton, and W. Michael Hairfield. “The nasal airway following maxil- lary expansion.” American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics 91, no. 2 (1987): 111-116.
    48. Kushida, C. A., C. Guilleminault, E. Mignot, O. Amhed, C. Won, B. O’Hara, and A. A. Clerk. “Genetics and craniofacial dysmorphism in family studies of obstructive sleep apnea.” Sleep Res 25 (1996): 275.
    49. Guilleminault, Christian, Shehlanoor Huseni, and Lauren Lo. “A fre- quent phenotype for paediatric sleep apnoea: short lingual frenulum.” ERJ open research 2, no. 3 (2016): 00043-2016.
    50. Ricke, Lori A., Nancy J. Baker, Diane J. Madlon-Kay, and Terese A. DeFor. “Newborn tongue-tie: prevalence and effect on breast-feed- ing.” The Journal of the American Board of Family Practice 18, no. 1 (2005): 1-7.
    51. Whitworth, Sue Bobbie. “Identifying and Treating a Lip Tie in Babies and Toddlers.” Healthline. Published December 18, 2018. www. (accessed January 8, 2020).
    52. Palmer, Brian G. “Prevention-The Key to Treating OSA/SDB-Part II.”
    53. Fabbie, Paula, Leonard Kundel, and Peter Vitruk. “Tongue-tie func- tional release.” Dental Sleep Practice (2016): 40-45.
    54. de Lábio, Roberto Badra, Elaine Lara Mendes Tavares, Rafael Ceranto Alvarado, and Regina Helen Garcia Martins. “Consequences of chronic nasal obstruction on the laryngeal mucosa and voice quality of 4-to 12-year-old children.” Journal of Voice 26, no. 4 (2012): 488-492.
    55. Hitos, Silvia F., Renata Arakaki, Dirceu Solé, and Luc LM Weckx. “Oral breathing and speech disorders in children.” Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português) 89, no. 4 (2013): 361-365.
    56. Eom, Tae-Hoon, Eun-Sil Jang, Young-Hoon Kim, Seung-Yun Chung, and In-Goo Lee. “Articulation error of children with adenoid hyper- trophy.” Korean journal of pediatrics 57, no. 7 (2014): 323.
    57. “Auditory Processing Disorder.” NHS. Published July 20, 2017. www. auditory-processing-disorder/ (accessed February 27, 2020).
    58. ziliotto, Karin Neves, Maria Francisca Colella dos Santos, Valeria
    G. Monteiro, Márcia Pradella-Hallinan, Gustavo A. Moreira, Liliane Desgualdo Pereira, Luc LM Weckx, Reginaldo Raimundo Fujita, and Gilberto ulson Pizarro. “Auditory processing assessment in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.” Brazilian journal of otorhino- laryngology 72, no. 3 (2006): 321-327.
    59. Neiva, Patricia Dayrell, Letícia Paiva Franco, Renata Noce Kirkwood, and Helena Gonçalves Becker. “The effect of adenotonsillectomy on the position of head, cervical and thoracic spine and scapular girdle of mouth breathing children.” International journal of pediatric otorhi- nolaryngology 107 (2018): 101-106.
    60. Motta, Lara Jansiski, Joanna Carolina Bachiega, Carolina Cardoso Guedes, Lorena Tristao Laranja, and Sandra Kalil Bussadori. “Associ- ation between halitosis and mouth breathing in children.” Clinics 66, no. 6 (2011): 939-942.
    61. Canuto, Marisa Siqueira Brandão, Jaciane Batista de Moura, and César Antônio Lira dos Anjos. “ Feeding preference of mouth breath- ers of an elementary school.” Revista CEFAC 18, no. 4 (2016): 811- 817.
    1. Million Hearts. “Estimated Hypertension Prevalence, Treatment, and Control Among u.S. Adults Tables.”, Reviewed, January 21, 2020 tension-prevalence-tables.html#Table1 (accessed August 29, 2020)
    2. WHO. “Hypertension.” World Health Organization. Published

    September 13, 2019. www.
    hypertension (accessed March 8, 2020).
    3. Post acute advisor. “under New Guidelines, 80% of Adults 65 and
    Older Will Qualify for High Blood Pressure.” Health Leaders. Pub- lished November 17, 2017. under-new-guidelines-80-adults-65-and-older-will-qualify-high- blood-pressure (accessed August 29, 2020).
    4. Age uK. “High blood pressure. One of the simplest health checks, but also one of the most important, is your blood pressure level. Find out why you should get checked regularly for high blood pressure.”, updated: August 19, 2020. www.ageuk. formation-advice/health-wellbeing/conditions-illnesses/high-blood- pressure/ (accessed August 29, 2020).
    5. Soma Technology Blog. “Fun Fact Friday: How Many Times Does Your Heart Beat in a Day?.” Soma Published Octo- ber 9, 2020. www.somatechnology. com/blog/fun-fact-friday/how- many-times-does-your-heart-beat-in-a-day/ (accessed December 10, 2020.
    6. u.S. Department of Health & Human Services. “High Blood Pres- sure.” National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. health-topics/high-blood-pressure (accessed, March 8, 2020).
    7. Clark, Christopher E., Rod S. Taylor, Angela C. Shore, Obioha C. ukoumunne, and John L. Campbell. “Association of a difference in systolic blood pressure between arms with vascular disease and mor- tality: a systematic review and meta-analysis.” The Lancet 379, no. 9819 (2012): 905-914.
    8. Gottlieb Tirala, L. “The cure of high blood pressure by respiratory exercises.” New York, New York: Westerman Inc. Co (1936).
    9. Kaushik, Rajeev Mohan, Reshma Kaushik, Sukhdev Krishan Mahajan, and Vemreddi Rajesh. “Effects of mental relaxation and slow breath- ing in essential hypertension.” Complementary Therapies in Medicine 14, no. 2 (2006): 120-126.
    10. Mourya, Monika, Aarti Sood Mahajan, Narinder Pal Singh, and Ajay K. Jain. “Effect of slow-and fast-breathing exercises on autonomic functions in patients with essential hypertension.” The journal of alternative and complementary medicine 15, no. 7 (2009): 711-717.
    11. Venkataraman, Shreyas, Soumya Vungarala, Naima Covassin, and Virend K. Somers. “Sleep Apnea, Hypertension and the Sympathetic Nervous System in the Adult Population.” Journal of Clinical Medi- cine 9, no. 2 (2020): 591.
    12. Xie, Ailiang, James B. Skatrud, Dominic S. Puleo, and Barbara J. Morgan. “Exposure to hypoxia produces long-lasting sympathetic ac- tivation in humans.” Journal of Applied Physiology 91, no. 4 (2001):
    13. Silvani, Alessandro. “Physiological sleep-dependent changes in arterial blood pressure: central autonomic commands and baroreflex control.” Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology 35, no. 9 (2008): 987-994.
    14. Jones, Chulee u., Benjarat Sangthong, and Orathai Pachirat. “An inspiratory load enhances the antihypertensive effects of home-based training with slow deep breathing: a randomised trial.” Journal of physiotherapy 56, no. 3 (2010): 179-186.
    15. ubolsakka-Jones, Chulee, Phailin Tongdee, and David A. Jones. “The effects of slow loaded breathing training on exercise blood pressure in isolated systolic hypertension.” Physiotherapy Research International 24, no. 4 (2019): e1785.
    16. Pessoa, Isabela, M. B. Sclauser, Verônica Franco Parreira, Guilherme AF Fregonezi, A. William Sheel, Frank Chung, and W. Darlene Reid. “Reference values for maximal inspiratory pressure: a systematic review.” Canadian respiratory journal 21, no. 1 (2014): 43-50.
    17. Fonseca, Jéssica Danielle Medeiros da, Kadja Franciely Gomes Benício, Vanessa Regiane Resqueti, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas Fregonezi, and Andrea Aliverti. “Acute effects of inspiratory loads and interfaces on breathing pattern and activity of respiratory mus- cles in healthy subjects.” Frontiers in physiology 10 (2019): 993.
    18. Petruson, Bjorn, and Thorvald Bjurö. “The importance of nose-breathing for the systolic blood pressure rise during exercise.” Acta oto-laryngologica 109, no. 5-6 (1990): 461-466.
    19. Trembach, Nikita, and Igor zabolotskikh. “Breath-holding test in evaluation of peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy subjects.” Respiratory physiology & neurobiology 235 (2017): 79-82.
    20. Singh, Jagmeet P., Martin G. Larson, Hisako Tsuji, Jane C. Evans, Christopher J. O’Donnell, and Daniel Levy. “Reduced heart rate variability and new-onset hypertension: insights into pathogenesis of hypertension: the Framingham Heart Study.” Hypertension 32, no. 2 (1998): 293-297.
    21. Xie, Gui-Ling, Jing-hua Wang, Yan zhou, Hui Xu, Jing-Hui Sun, and Si-Rui Yang. “Association of high blood pressure with heart rate vari- ability in children.” Iranian journal of pediatrics 23, no. 1 (2013): 37.
    22. Hu, Kai, Chengxing Shen, and Qin Yu. “Prevalence and Challenges of Hypertensive Heart Diseases in the Real World.” (2019).
    23. Gevirtz, Richard. “The promise of heart rate variability biofeedback: Evidence-based applications.” Biofeedback 41, no. 3 (2013): 110-120.
    1. Wiktionary contributors, “asthma,” Wiktionary, The Free Dictio- nary, https://en.wiktionary. org/w/index.php?title=asthma&ol- did=59397188 (accessed July 16, 2020).
    2. Holgate, Stephen T. “A brief history of asthma and its mechanisms to modern concepts of disease pathogenesis.” Allergy, asthma & immu- nology research 2, no. 3 (2010): 165-171.
    3. Global Asthma Network. “About Asthma.” (accessed, July 16, 2020).
    4. Sakula, A. (1985). Henry Hyde Salter (1823-71): a biographical sketch. Thorax, 40(12), 887.
    5. Osler, William. The Principles and practice of medicine c. 2. D. Ap- pleton, 1892.
    6. Hayes, Kristin, Daniel More, M.D., “understanding E-Asthma: An Asthma Subtype.” Very Well Health. Published February 5, 2020. (accessed March 14, 2020).
    7. Michel Alkhalil, M.D., Edward Schulman, M.D., and Joanne Getsy, M.D. “Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Asthma: What Are the Links?.” J Clin Sleep Med. 2009 Feb 15; 5(1): 71–78.
    8. Levitan, Richard M. “Avoid Airway Catastrophes on the Extremes of Minute Ventilation.” ACEP Now. Published January 20, 2015. www. ute-ventilation/ (accessed March 14, 2020.)
    9. Johnson, BRuCE D., PAuL D. Scanlon, and KENNETH C. Beck. “Regulation of ventilatory capacity during exercise in asthmatics.” Journal of Applied Physiology 79, no. 3 (1995): 892-901.
    10. Chalupa, David C., Paul E. Morrow, Günter Oberdörster, Mark J. utell, and Mark W. Frampton. “ultrafine particle deposition in subjects with asthma.” Environmental health perspectives 112, no. 8 (2004): 879-882.
    11. Bowler, Simon D., Amanda Green, and Charles A. Mitchell. “Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a blinded randomised controlled trial.” Medical journal of Australia 169, no. 11-12 (1998): 575-578.
    12. Worsham, Christopher M., Robert B. Banzett, and Richard M. Schwartzstein. “Air Hunger and Psychological Trauma in Ventilated Patients with COVID-19. An urgent Problem.” Annals of the Ameri- can Thoracic Society 17, no. 8 (2020): 926.
    13. Diaz-Macinnis, Lynsey and Beth Israel Deaconess. “Relief for Air Hunger.” Harvard Medical School News. Published June 12, 2020.
    14. (accessed August
    10, 2020).
    15. Izuhara, Y., Hisako Matsumoto, T. Nagasaki, Y. Kanemitsu, K. Murase,
    I. Ito, T. Oguma et al. “Mouth breathing, another risk factor for asth-
    ma: the Nagahama Study.” Allergy 71, no. 7 (2016): 1031-1036.
    16. Hallani, M., J. R. Wheatley, and T. C. Amis. “Initiating oral breathing
    in response to nasal loading: asthmatics versus healthy subjects.”
    European Respiratory Journal 31, no. 4 (2008): 800-806.
    17. Holger, J., Joan Dorn Schunemann, J. B. Drydon, Warren Winkel-
    stein Grant Jr, and T. Maurizio. “Pulmonary function is the long term predictor of mortality in the general population: 29 years follow-up of the buffalo health study.” Chest 118, no. 3 (2000): 656-664.
    18. Science News. “Lung Function May Predict Long Life Or Early Death.” Published September 13, 2000. https:// releases/2000/09/000913082603.htm (accessed, July 16, 2020).
    19. Veidal, Sandra, Maria Jeppegaard, Asger Sverrild, Vibeke Backer, and Celeste Porsbjerg. “The impact of dysfunctional breathing on the assessment of asthma control.” Respiratory Medicine 123 (2017): 42-47.
    20. Bowler, Simon D., Amanda Green, and Charles A. Mitchell. “Buteyko breathing techniques in asthma: a blinded randomised controlled trial.” Medical journal of Australia 169, no. 11-12 (1998): 575-578.
    21. Bott, Julia, Sharron Blumenthal, Maria Buxton, Sheric Ellum, Caro- line Falconer, Rachel Garrod, Alex Harvey et al. “Guidelines for the physiotherapy management of the adult, medical, spontaneously breathing patient.” Thorax 64, no. Suppl 1 (2009): i1-i52.
    22. Kucharski, Marcin A. “Influence of chlorinated water on the devel- opment of allergic diseases–An overview.” Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 25, no. 4 (2018): 651-655.
    23. uyan, z. S., S. Carraro, G. Piacentini, and E. Baraldi. “Swimming pool, respiratory health, and childhood asthma: should we change our beliefs?.” Pediatric pulmonology 44, no. 1 (2009): 31-37.
    24. Fjellbirkeland, L., A. Gulsvik, and A. Walløe. “Swimming-induced asthma.” Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening: tidsskrift for prak- tisk medicin, ny raekke 115, no. 17 (1995): 2051-2053.
    25. Bernard, Alfred, Sylviane Carbonnelle, Olivier Michel, Sandra Higuet, Claire De Burbure, Jean-Pierre Buchet, Cédric Hermans, Xavier Dumont, and Ian Doyle. “Lung hyperpermeability and asthma prevalence in schoolchildren: unexpected associations with the attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools.” Occupational and environmental medicine 60, no. 6 (2003): 385-394.
    26. Nickmilder, Marc, and Alfred Bernard. “Ecological association be- tween childhood asthma and ming pools in Europe.” Occupational and environmental medicine 64,
    no. 1 (2007): 37-46.
    27. Andersson, Martin, Helena Backman, Gunnar Nordberg, Annika
    Hagenbjörk, Linnea Hedman, Kåre Eriksson, Bertil Forsberg, and Eva Rönmark. “Early life swimming pool exposure and asthma onset in children–a case-control study.” Environmental Health 17, no. 1 (2018): 34.
    28. Näsman, Amanda, Tommie Irewall, ulf Hållmarker, Anne Lindberg, and Nikolai Stenfors. “Asthma and Asthma medication are common among recreational athletes participating in endurance sport compe- titions.” Canadian respiratory journal 2018 (2018).
    29. Carlsen, K. H., S. D. Anderson, Leif Bjermer, Sergio Bonini, V. Bru- sasco, W. Canonica, J. Cummiskey et al. “Exercise-induced asthma, respiratory and allergic disorders in elite athletes: epidemiology, mechanisms and diagnosis: Part I of the report from the Joint Task Force of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) in coopera- tion with GA2LEN.” Allergy 63, no. 4 (2008): 387-403.
    30. Durrington, Hannah J., Stuart N. Farrow, Andrew S. Loudon, and David W. Ray. “The circadian clock and asthma.” Thorax 69, no. 1 (2014): 90-92.
    31. Kavanagh, Joanne, David J. Jackson, and Brian D. Kent. “Sleep and asthma.” Current opinion in pulmonary medicine 24, no. 6 (2018): 569-573.
    32. Litinski, Mikhail, Frank AJL Scheer, and Steven A. Shea. “Influence of the circadian system on disease severity.” Sleep medicine clinics 4, no. 2 (2009): 143-163.
    33. Walter, Helen, Fatema Sadeque-Iqbal, Rose ulysse, Doreen Cas- tillo, Aileen Fitzpatrick, and Joanne Singleton. “The effectiveness
    of school-based family asthma educational programs on the quality of life and number of asthma exacerbations of children aged five to 18 years diagnosed with asthma: a systematic review protocol.” JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports 13, no. 10 (2015): 69-81.
    34. Corrao, William M. “Pearls and pitfalls in the diagnosis of cough vari- ant asthma.” In Allergy & Asthma Proceedings, vol. 39, no. 6. 2018.
    35. Sterk, P. J., and E. H. Bel. “Bronchial hyperresponsiveness: the need
    for a distinction between hypersensitivity and excessive airway nar-
    rowing.” European Respiratory Journal 2, no. 3 (1989): 267-274.
    36. Rogliani, Paola, Maurizia Sforza, and Luigino Calzetta. “The impact of comorbidities on severe asthma.” Current opinion in pulmonary
    medicine 26, no. 1 (2020): 47-55.
    37. Aw, Michael, Jeremy Penn, Gail M. Gauvreau, Hermenio Lima, and
    Roma Sehmi. “Atopic March: Collegium Internationale Allergologi- cum update 2020.” International archives of allergy and immunology 181, no. 1 (2020): 1-10.
    38. Pakkasela, Johanna, Pinja Ilmarinen, Jasmin Honkamäki, Leena E. Tuomisto, Heidi Andersén, Päivi Piirilä, Hanna Hisinger-Mölkänen et al. “Age-specific incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma.” BMC pulmonary medicine 20, no. 1 (2020): 1-9.
    39. Shoormasti, Raheleh Shokouhi, zahra Pourpak, Mohammad Reza Fazlollahi, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Fatemeh Nadali, zahra Ebadi, Behnoosh Tayebi et al. “The prevalence of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, atopic dermatitis and asthma among adults of Tehran.” Iranian journal of public health 47, no. 11 (2018): 1749.
    40. Pawankar, Ruby, G. W. Canonica, S. T. Holgate, R. F. Lockey, and M. Blaiss. “World Allergy Organization (WAO) white book on allergy.” Wisconsin: World Allergy Organisation (2011).
    41. Vo-Thi-Kim, Anh, Tan Van-Quang, Binh Nguyen-Thanh, Dung Dao- Van, and Sy DuongQuy. “The effect of medical treatment on nasal exhaled nitric oxide (NO) in patients with persistent allergic rhinitis: A randomized control study.” Advances in Medical Sciences 65, no. 1 (2020): 182-188.
    42. Bresolin, Dante, Peter A. Shapiro, Gail G. Shapiro, Michael K. Chapko, and Steven Dassel. “Mouth breathing in allergic children: its relationship to dentofacial development.” American Journal of Orthodontics 83, no. 4 (1983): 334-340.
    43. Young, Terry, Larel Finn, and Hyon Kim. “Nasal obstruction as a risk factor for sleep-disordered breathing.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 99, no. 2 (1997): S757-S762.
    44. Liu, Jiaomei, Xinge zhang, Yingying zhao, and Yujiao Wang. “The as- sociation between allergic rhinitis and sleep: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.” PloS One 15, no. 2 (2020): e0228533.
    45. Wikipedia contributors, “Trigeminal nerve,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https:// nal_nerve&oldid=941755859 (accessed March 15, 2020).
    46. Chowdhury, Tumul, Barkha Bindu, Gyaninder Pal Singh, and Ber- nhard Schaller. “Sleep disorders: Is the trigemino-cardiac reflex a missing link?.” Frontiers in neurology 8 (2017): 63.
    47. Bindu, Barkha, Gyaninder Pal Singh, Tumul Chowdhury, and Ber- nhard Schaller. “Rhinitis and sleep disorders: The trigeminocardiac reflex link?.” Medical hypotheses 103 (2017): 96-99.
    48. Tonelli, Leonardo H., Morgan Katz, Colleen E. Kovacsics, Todd D. Gould, Belzora Joppy, Akina Hoshino, Gloria Hoffman, Hirsh Koma- row, and Teodor T. Postolache. “Allergic rhinitis induces anxiety-like behavior and altered social interaction in rodents.” Brain, behavior, and immunity 23, no. 6 (2009): 784-793.
    49. Sikorska-Szaflik, Hanna, and Barbara Sozańska. “Quality of life in al-
    lergic rhinitis-children’s and their parents’ perspective in polish urban and rural population.” Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 18, no. 1 (2020): 1-8.
    50. Serrano, C., A. Valero, and C. Picado. “Nasal nitric oxide.” Archivos de Bronconeumología (English Edition) 40, no. 5 (2004): 222-230.
    51. Vural, C., and Anıl Güngör. “Nitric oxide and the upper airways: recent discoveries.” Kulak burun bogaz ihtisas dergisi: KBB= Journal of ear, nose, and throat 10, no. 1 (2003): 39-44.
    52. Törnberg, D. C. F., H. Marteus, u. Schedin, K. Alving, J. O. N. Lund- berg, and E. Weitzberg. “Nasal and oral contribution to inhaled and exhaled nitric oxide: a study in tracheotomized patients.” European Respiratory Journal 19, no. 5 (2002): 859-864.
    53. Kharitonov, Sergei A., Karalasingam Rajakulasingam, Brian O’Con- nor, Stephen R. Durham, and Peter J. Barnes. “Nasal nitric oxide is increased in patientswith asthma and allergic rhinitis and may be modulated by nasal glucocorticoids.” Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 99, no. 1 (1997): 58-64.
    54. Duong-Quy, Sy. “Clinical utility Of The Exhaled Nitric Oxide (NO) Measurement With Portable Devices In The Management Of Allergic Airway Inflammation And Asthma.” Journal of Asthma and Allergy 12 (2019): 331.
    55. Dillon, William C., Václav Hampl, Pamela J. Shultz, Jeffrey B. Rubins, and Stephen L. Archer. “Origins of breath nitric oxide in humans.” Chest 110, no. 4 (1996): 930-938.
    56. Casale, Thomas B., Francisco A. Romero, and Egilius LH Spierings. “Intranasal noninhaled carbon dioxide for the symptomatic treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis.” Journal of allergy and clinical immunolo- gy 121, no. 1 (2008): 105-109.
    57. Baroody, Fuad M., Laura Gavanescu, Jiang Hong Wang, Marcy DeTi- neo, and Robert M. Naclerio. “The effect of intranasal carbon dioxide on the acute response to nasal challenge with allergen.” In Allergy and asthma proceedings, vol. 32, no. 3, p. 206. OceanSide Publications, 2011.
    58. Joseph, Deepak, Raju K. Puttaswamy, and Hari Krovvidi. “Non-respi- ratory functions of the lung.” Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain 13, no. 3 (2013): 98-102.
    59. Aljazeera News. “How does coronavirus spread and how can you protect yourself?.” Aljazeera. Published March 15, 2020. tect-200130115539072.html (accessed March 17, 2020).

    60. Wardzyńska, Aleksandra, Małgorzata Pawełczyk, Anna Głobińska, Jo- anna S. Makowska, and Marek L. Kowalski. “The profile of respiratory pathogens in induced sputum of elderly and non-elderly asthmatics.” Central-European Journal of Immunology 44, no. 4 (2019): 384.
    61. Dinwiddie, Darrell L., Jesse L. Denson, and Joshua L. Kennedy. “Role of the airway microbiome in respiratory infections and asthma in children.” Pediatric allergy, immunology, and pulmonology 31, no. 4 (2018): 236-240.
    1. The Tao of Love and Sex, Chang, Jolan, “The Tao of Love and Sex.” Wildwood Press, 1977 pp102-3.
    2. Prateek. Satyarthi. “Tantric breathing exercises and its types.” Published January 12, 2018. https://tantranectar. com/tantric-breathing-exercises-and-its-types/ (accessed June 26, 2020).
    3. Alwaal, Amjad, Benjamin N. Breyer, and Tom F. Lue. “Normal male sexual function: emphasis on orgasm and ejaculation.” Fertility and sterility 104, no. 5 (2015): 1051-1060.
    4. “What is Erectile Dysfunction?.” www. what-is-ed (accessed June 23, 2020).
    5. Gunhan, Kivanc, Fatih zeren, uzdan uz, Bilal Gumus, and Halis unlu. “Impact of nasal polyposis on erectile dysfunction.” American journal of rhinology & allergy 25, no. 2 (2011): 112-115.
    6. Meldrum, David R., Arthur L. Burnett, Grace Dorey, Katherine Esposito, and Louis J. Ignarro. “Erectile hydraulics: maximizing inflow while minimizing outflow.” The journal of sexual medicine 11, no. 5 (2014): 1208-1220.
    7. Graber, B., and G. Kline-Graber. “Female orgasm: role of pubococ- cygeus muscle.” The Journal of clinical psychiatry 40, no. 8 (1979): 348-351.
    8. zachovajeviene, B., L. Siupsinskas, Pavelas zachovajevas, z. Venclovas, and Daimantas Milonas. “Effect of diaphragm and abdominal muscle training on pelvic floor strength and endurance: results of a prospec- tive randomized trial.” Scientific reports 9, no. 1 (2019): 1-9.
    9. Dorey, Grace, Mark Speakman, Roger Feneley, Annette Swinkels, Christopher Dunn, and Paul Ewings. “Randomised controlled trial
    of pelvic floor muscle exercises and manometric biofeedback for erectile dysfunction.” British Journal of General Practice 54, no. 508 (2004): 819-825.
    10. Kegel, Arnold H. “Sexual Function of the Pubocococcygeus Muscle.” West. JSO & G. 60 (1952): 521-524. zahariou, Athanasios, Maria Karamouti, Eleni Tyligada, and Polyanthi Papaioannou. “Sexual function in women with overactive bladder.” Female pelvic medicine & reconstructive surgery 16, no. 1 (2010): 31-36.
    11. de Carufel, François, and Gilles Trudel. “Effects of a new function- al-sexological treatment for premature ejaculation.” Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 32, no. 2 (2006): 97-114.
    12. Potts, Annie, Nicola Gavey, Victoria M. Grace, and Tiina Vares. “The downside of Viagra: women’s experiences and concerns.” Sociology of Health & Illness 25, no. 7 (2003): 697-719.
    13. Tiefer, L., and Arnold Melman. “Interview of wives: a necessary ad- junct in the evaluation of impotence.” Sexuality and Disability 6, no. 3-4 (1983): 167-175.
    14. Sherr, Lorraine, Graham Bolding, Mark Maguire, and Jonathan Elford. “Viagra use and sexual risk behaviour among gay men in Lon- don.” Aids 14, no. 13 (2000): 2051.
    15. Bendas, Johanna, Thomas Hummel, and Ilona Croy. “Olfactory function relates to sexual experience in adults.” Archives of Sexual Behavior 47, no. 5 (2018): 1333-1339.
    16. Gaby, Jessica M., and Vivian zayas. “Smelling is telling: human olfac- tory cues influence social judgments in semi-realistic interactions.” Chemical senses 42, no. 5 (2017): 405-418.
    17. Wu, Ruiqi, Yue Liu, Li Wang, Bo Li, and Fuqiang Xu. “Activity patterns elicited by airflow in the olfactory bulb and their possible functions.” Journal of Neuroscience 37, no. 44 (2017): 10700-10711.
    18. Bollen, Curd ML, and Thomas Beikler. “Halitosis: the multidis- ciplinary approach.” International journal of oral science 4, no. 2 (2012): 55-63.
    19. Davies, Kelvin P. “Development and therapeutic applications of nitric oxide releasing materials to treat erectile dysfunction.” Future science OA 1, no. 1 (2015).
    20. Hamilton, Lisa Dawn, and Cindy M. Meston. “Chronic stress and sexual function in women.” The journal of sexual medicine 10, no. 10 (2013): 2443-2454.
    21. Esfahani, Saeideh Botlani, and Sebely Pal. “Obesity, mental health, and sexual dysfunction: A critical review.” Health psychology open 5, no. 2 (2018): 2055102918786867.
    22. Purves, Dale, G. J. Augustine, and D. Fitzpatrick. “Autonomic reg- ulation of sexual function.” Neuroscience. Second ed. Sunderland: Sinauer Associates (2001).
    23. Dart, Anthony M., Xiao-Jun Du, and Bronwyn A. Kingwell. “Gender, sex hormones and autonomic nervous control of the cardiovascular system.” Cardiovascular research 53, no. 3 (2002): 678-687.
    25. Allahdadi, Kyan J., Rita CA Tostes, and R. Clinton Webb. “Female sexual dysfunction: therapeutic options and experimental challeng- es.” Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry (Formerly Current Medicinal Chemistry-Cardiovascular & Hemato- logical Agents) 7, no. 4 (2009): 260-269.
    26. Dickenson, Janna A., Jenna Alley, and Lisa M. Diamond. “Subjec- tive and oxytocinergic responses to mindfulness are associated with subjective and oxytocinergic responses to sexual arousal.” Frontiers in psychology 10 (2019): 1101.
    27. American Physiological Association. “Stress Effects on the Body.” Published November 2018. effects-male-reproductive (accessed June 26, 2020).
    28. Wheeler, G., D. Cumming, R. Burnham, I. Maclean, B. D. Sloley, Y. Bhambhani, and R.D. Steadward. “Testosterone, cortisol and cate- cholamine responses to exercise stress and autonomic dysreflexia in elite quadriplegic athletes.” Spinal Cord 32, no. 5 (1994): 292-299.
    29. Marson, Lesley. Autonomic regulation of sexual function. New York, Oxford university Press, 2011.
    30. Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold, Christopher B. Harte, Lisa Dawn Hamilton, and Cindy M. Meston. “Evidence for a curvilinear relationship be- tween sympathetic nervous system activation and women’s physio- logical sexual arousal.” Psychophysiology 49, no. 1 (2012): 111-117.
    31. Keast, Janet R., and Peregrine B. Osborne. “Autonomic Nervous System and Male Reproduction.” (2018): 429-435.
    32. Goldstein, Irwin. “The Central Mechanisms of Sexual Function.” Boston University School of Medicine. Published February 7, 2003. publications/the-central-mecha- nisms-of-sexual-function/ (accessed June 28, 2020).
    33. Harte, Christopher B. “The relationship between resting heart rate variability and erectile tumescence among men with normal erectile function.” The journal of sexual medicine 10, no. 8 (2013): 1961- 1968.
    34. Stanton, Amelia M., Carey S. Pulverman, and Cindy M. Meston. “Vagal activity during physiological sexual arousal in women with and without sexual dysfunction.” Journal of sex & marital therapy 43, no. 1 (2017): 78-89.
    35. Lorenz, Tierney K., Christopher B. Harte, and Cindy M. Meston. “Changes in autonomic nervous system activity are associated with changes in sexual function in women with a history of childhood sexu- al abuse.” The journal of sexual medicine 12, no. 7 (2015): 1545-1554.
    36. Nicholas, Aurelie, Stuart Brody, Pascal De Sutter, and François De Carufel. “A woman’s history of vaginal orgasm is discernible from her walk.” The journal of sexual medicine 5, no. 9 (2008): 2119-2124.
    Komisaruk, Barry R., Beverly Whipple, Audrita Crawford, Sherry Grimes, Wen-Ching Liu, Andrew Kalnin, and Kristine Mosier. “Brain activation during vaginocervical self-stimulation and orgasm in wom- en with complete spinal cord injury: fMRI evidence of mediation by the vagus nerves.” Brain research1024, no. 1-2 (2004): 77-88.
    37. Holland, Kimberly. “What Is Clitoral Atrophy and How’s It Treated?.” Published July 1, 2019. womens-health/clitoral-atrophy (accessed July 3, 2020).
    38. Irish Times. “The clitoris has 8,000 nerve endings (and nine oth-
    er things we learned from a new artwork)” Irish Times. Published January 23, 2017. life-and-style/health-family/ the-clitoris-has-8-000-nerve-endings-and-nine-other-things-we- learned-from-a-new-artwork-1.2947694 (accessed July 3, 2020).
    39. Wurn, Lawrence J., Belinda F. Wurn, Amanda S. Roscow, C. Richard King, Eugenia S. Scharf, and Jonathan J. Shuster. “Increasing orgasm and decreasing dyspareunia by a manual physical therapy technique.” Medscape General Medicine 6, no. 4 (2004).
    40. Yehuda, I. “Pelvic floor involvement in male and female sexual dysfunction and the role of pelvic. Floor rehabilitation treatment: a literature review.” J Sex Med 3007, no. 4: 4-13.
    41. Collins, J. J., C. E. Lin, H. R. Berthoud, and R. E. Papka. “Vagal afferents from the uterus and cervix provide direct connections to the brainstem.” Cell and tissue research 295, no. 1 (1999): 43-54.
    42. Passie, Torsten, uwe Hartmann, udo Schneider, and Hinderk M. Emrich. “On the function of groaning and hyperventilation during sexual intercourse: intensification of sexual experience by altering brain metabolism through hypocapnia.” Medical hypotheses 60, no. 5 (2003): 660-663.
    43. Chia, Mantak, and Rachel Carlton Abrams. The Multi-orgasmic Woman: Discover Your Full Desire, Pleasure, and Vitality. Rodale Books, 2006.
    44. Chia, Mantak Chia, and Douglas Abrams Arava. The multi-orgasmic man. HarperCollins, 2002.
    45. Heumann, Suzie. “What Do Singing, Throats And The Vagus Nerve Have To Do With Orgasm?.” Huff Post. Published September
    25, 2009. entry/what-do-singing-throats- a_b_268642?guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly93d3cuz29vz2xlLm- NvbS8&guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAKrcO0Gm43KVe4TAlg_ p2w9g jxoMOPmSchTyKD8Hn 4R9zCz6 mpku3wIFAW8Fcp- 3mIoOFxWp6WNTQXX2k8COE9VSfq21LlKoYi8RA0bHG- C1l5dFwFVauC_eE5wP7xWW3QpNQun9i6povLX7uWlg4wsuN- D6ITLMuIS-f3Kz88-W2Ay&guccounter=2 (accessed June 26, 2020).
    47. Debenedittis, Giuseppe, Mario Cigada, Anna Bianchi, Maria Gabriella Signorini, and Sergio Cerutti. “Autonomic changes during hypnosis: a heart rate variability power spectrum analysis as a marker of sym- patho-vagal balance.” International Journal of Clinical and Experi- mental Hypnosis42, no. 2 (1994): 140-152.
    48. Mobley, David F., Mohit Khera, and Neil Baum. “Recent advances in the treatment of erectile dysfunction.” Postgraduate medical journal 93, no. 1105 (2017): 679-685.
    49. Schwarz, E. R., V. Kapur, S. Bionat, S. Rastogi, R. Gupta, and S. Rosanio. “The prevalence and clinical relevance of sexual dysfunction in women and men with chronic heart failure.” International Journal of Impotence Research 20, no. 1 (2008): 85-91.
    50. Masters, William H., and Virginia E. Johnson. “Human sexual re- sponse.” (1966).
    51. Bartlett Jr, R. G. “Physiologic responses during coitus.” Journal of Applied Physiology 9, no. 3 (1956): 469-472.
    52. Hellerstein, Herman K., and Ernest H. Friedman. “Sexual activity and the postcoronary patient.” Archives of Internal Medicine 125, no. 6 (1970): 987-999.
    53. Fatemi, Seyedeh Seddigeh, and Seyed Morteza Taghavi. “Evaluation of sexual function in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.” Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research 6, no. 1 (2009): 38-39.
    54. Sadeghi-Nejad, Hossein, Daniel Brison, and Vikram Dogra. “Male erectile dysfunction.”Ultrasound Clinics 2, no. 1 (2007): 57-71.
    55. Kingsberg, Sheryl A. “The impact of aging on sexual function in wom- en and their partners.” Archives of sexual behavior 31, no. 5 (2002): 431-437.
    56. Montejo-Gonzalez, Angel L., G. Llorca, J. A. Izquierdo, A. Ledesma, M. Bouso o, A. Calcedo, J. L. Carrasco, J. Ciudad, E. Daniel, and J. De la Gandara. “SSRI-induced sexual dysfunction: fluoxetine, parox- etine, sertraline, and fluvoxamine in a prospective, multicenter, and descriptive clinical study of 344 patients.” Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy 23 (1997): 176-194.
    57. Holmes, Leanne Jo, Janelle A. Yorke, Caroline Dutton, Stephen J. Fowler, and Dorothy Ryan. “Sex and intimacy in people with severe asthma: a qualitative study.” BMJ open respiratory research 6, no. 1 (2019).
    58. Shah, Ashok, and Mrinal Sircar. “Postcoital asthma and rhinitis.” Chest 100, no. 4 (1991): 1039-1041.
    59. Polverino, Francesca, Carlo Santoriello, Vittorio De Sio, Filippo Andò, Francesco de Blasio, and Mario Polverino. “Sexual intercourse and respiratory failure.” Respiratory medicine 102, no. 6 (2008): 927-931. Karadag, Fisun, Hatice Ozcan, Aslihan B. Karul, Emel Ceylan, and Orhan Cildag. “Correlates of erectile dysfunction in moderate-to-se- vere chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.” Respirology 12, no. 2 (2007): 248-253.
    60. Schönhofer, Bernd. “Sexuality in patients with restricted breathing.” Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany: 1983) 97, no. 6 (2002): 344-349.
    61. Kirmaz, Cengiz, Omer Aydemir, Papatya Bayrak, Hasan Yuksel, Ozlem Ozenturk, and Sedat Degirmenci. “Sexual dysfunction in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 95, no. 6 (2005): 525-529.
    62. Basson, Rosemary. “Rethinking low sexual desire in women.” BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology109, no. 4 (2002): 357-363.
    63. Kalmbach, David A., J. Todd Arnedt, Vivek Pillai, and Jeffrey A. Ciesla. “The impact of sleep on female sexual response and behavior: a pilot study.” The Journal of Sexual Medicine12, no. 5 (2015): 1221- 1232.
    64. Pascual, Mercè, Jordi de Batlle, Ferran Barbé, Anabel L. Cas- tro-Grattoni, Josep M. Auguet, Lydia Pascual, Manel Vilà, Anuncia- ción Cortijo, and Manuel Sánchez-de-la-Torre. “Erectile dysfunction in obstructive sleep apnea patients: A randomized trial on the effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP).” PloS One 13, no. 8 (2018): e0201930.
    65. Budweiser, Stephan, Stefan Enderlein, Rudolf A. Jörres, Andre P. Hitzl, Wolf F. Wieland, Michael Pfeifer, and Michael Arzt. “Sleep apnea is an independent correlate of erectile and sexual dysfunction.” The journal of sexual medicine 6, no. 11 (2009): 3147-3157.
    66. Araujo, Andre B., Susan A. Hall, Peter Ganz, Gretchen R. Chiu, Raymond C. Rosen, Varant Kupelian, Thomas G. Travison, and John B. McKinlay. “Does erectile dysfunction contribute to cardiovascular disease risk prediction beyond the Framingham risk score?.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology 55, no. 4 (2010): 350-356.
    67. Rastogi, S., J. J. Rodriguez, V. Kapur, and E. R. Schwarz. “Why do patients with heart failure suffer from erectile dysfunction? A critical review and suggestions on how to approach this problem.” Interna- tional journal of impotence research 17, no. 1 (2005): S25-S36.
    68. Cleveland Clinic. “Why Do Men Get Morning Erections? 5 Answers to Your Questions.” Published June 22, 2016. swers-questions/ (accessed, June 27, 2020).
    69. Qin, Feng, Liang Gao, Shengqiang Qian, Fudong Fu, Yang Yang, and Jiuhong Yuan. “Advantages and limitations of sleep-related erection
    and rigidity monitoring: a review.” International Journal of Impotence
    Research 30, no. 4 (2018): 192-201.
    71. Li, Chi-Ying, Stephen Larsen, and Tet Yap. “Nocturnal penile tumes-
    cence study.” Male Sexual Dysfunction: A Clinical Guide (2017):
    72. Vreugdenhil, Sanne, Alida Cornelia Weidenaar, Igle Jan de Jong, and
    Mels Frank van Driel. “Sleep-related painful erections—a case series of 24 patients regarding diagnostics and treatment options.” Sexual medicine 5, no. 4 (2017): e237-e243.
    73. NHS, Guy’s and St. Thomas’. “Nocturnal penile tumescence (NPT) testing.” NHS. June 2019. patient-information/urology/procedures/ nocturnal-penile-tumes- cence-testing.pdf (accessed June 30, 2020).
    74. Canguven, Onder, Raidh A. Talib, Walid El-Ansari, Ahmed Shamsod- dini, Mahmoud Salman, and Abdulla Al-Ansari. “RigiScan data under long-term testosterone therapy: improving long-term blood circula- tion of penile arteries, penile length and girth, erectile function, and nocturnal penile tumescence and duration.” The Aging Male 19, no. 4 (2016): 215-220.
    75. zhang, Y., S. Chen, G. Ma, Y. Lai, X. Yang, J. Feng, z. zang, T. Qi, B. Wang, and L. Ye. “632 Consecutive nightly recordings are required for the accurate monitoring of nocturnal erections.” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 15, no. 7 (2018): S367.
    76. Melehan, Kerri L., Camilla M. Hoyos, Garun S. Hamilton, Keith K. Wong, Brendon J. Yee, Robert I. McLachlan, Shamus O’Meagher et al. “Randomized trial of CPAP and vardenafil on erectile and arterial function in men with obstructive sleep apnea and erectile dysfunc- tion.” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 103, no. 4 (2018): 1601-1611.
    77. Hsu, Yen-Bin, Ming-Ying Lan, Yun-Chen Huang, Ming-Chang Kao, and Ming-Chin Lan. “Association Between Breathing Route, Oxygen Desaturation, and upper Airway Morphology.” The Laryngoscope (2020).
    78. Verratti, V., C. Di Giulio, F. Berardinelli, M. Pellicciotta, S. Di Fran- cesco, R. Iantorno, M. Nicolai, S. Gidaro, and R. Tenaglia. “The role of hypoxia in erectile dysfunction mechanisms.” International journal of impotence research 19, no. 5 (2007): 496-500.
    79. Kling, Juliana M., JoAnn E. Manson, Michelle J. Naughton, M’hamed Temkit, Shannon D. Sullivan, Emily W. Gower, Lauren Hale, Julie C. Weitlauf, Sara Nowakowski, and Carolyn J. Crandall. “Association of sleep disturbance and sexual function in postmenopausal women.” Menopause (New York, NY) 24, no. 6 (2017): 604.
    80. Kloss, Jacqueline D., Michael L. Perlis, Jessica A. zamzow, Elizabeth J. Culnan, and Clarisa R. Gracia. “Sleep, sleep disturbance, and fertility
    in women.” Sleep medicine reviews 22 (2015): 78-87.
    81. Afsahri, Poorandokht, zahra Salehnejad, Khadijeh Hekmat, Parvin
    Abedi, Ahmad Fakhri, and Mohammadhossein Haghighizadeh. “Do sleeping disorders impair sexual function in married Iranian women of reproductive age? Results from a cross-sectional study.” Psychiatry journal 2018 (2018).
    82. Goksever Celik, Hale. “The predictors for sexual dysfunction in infertile women with endometriosis.” Published June 4, 2020. tion-in-infertile-women-with-endometriosis (accessed June 28, 2020).
    83. Joshi, Anjali Mangesh, Arkiath Veettil Raveendran, and Sanjay Desh- pande. “Role of Yoga in the Management of Premature Ejaculation.” The world journal of men’s health 37 (2019).
    84. Lousada, Mike, and Elena Angel. “Tantric orgasm: beyond Masters and Johnson.” Sexual and Relationship Therapy 26, no. 4 (2011): 389-402.
    85. Francoeur, Robert T. “Sexuality and spirituality: the relevance of eastern traditions.”Siecus Report 20, no. 4 (1992): 1.
    86. Muktibodhananda, Swami. Hatha yoga pradipika. Sri Satguru Publica- tions, 2012.
    87. Giles, Jeff. “Sting explains that whole tantric sex thing.” Ultimateclas- Published October 13, 2014. https://ultimateclassicrock. com/sting-tantric-sex/ (accessed July 11, 2020).
    88. Pelling, Rowan. “What’s so scary about Tantric sex?.” IOL. Published November 1, 2011. scary-about-tantric-sex-1168771 (accessed July 11, 2020).
    89. The Good Body. “Yoga Statistics: Staggering Growth Shows Ever-in- creasing Popularity.” The Good Body, updated November 16, 2018. (accessed July 11, 2020).
    90. Prohom Olsen, Danielle. “Did Women Invent Yoga?.” Body Divine Yoga. Published February 25, 2011. https://bodydivineyoga.word- (accessed July 11, 2020).
    91. Wellness Living. “Five 2020 Yoga Trends to Add to Your Studio.” Published November 15, 2019. www.wellnessliv- (accessed July 11, 2020).
    92. Dhikav, Vikas, Girish Karmarkar, Mallika Gupta, and Kuljeet Singh Anand. “Ejaculatory disorders: Yoga in Premature Ejaculation: A Comparative Trial with Fluoxetine.” The Journal of Sexual Medicine 4, no. 6 (2007): 1726-1732.
    93. Giuliano, Francois. “5-Hydroxytryptamine in premature ejaculation: opportunities for therapeutic intervention.” Trends in neurosciences 30, no. 2 (2007): 79-84.
    94. Safron, Adam. “What is orgasm? A model of sexual trance and climax via rhythmic entrainment.” Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psycholo- gy 6, no. 1 (2016): 31763.
    95. Nielsen, Janina, Tillmann HC Krüger, uwe Hartmann, Torsten Passie, Thorsten Fehr, and Markus zedler. “Synaesthesia and sexuality: the influence of synaesthetic perceptions on sexual experience.” Fron- tiers in Psychology 4 (2013): 751.
    96. Prateek, Satyarthi. “Tantric breathing exercises and its types.” Tan- Published January 12, 2018. tantric-breathing-exercises-and-its-types/ (accessed July 2, 2020).
    97. urmila Neff, Dio. “The Divine Embrace.” Yoga Journal (March-April 1981: 10-20). https:// BAJ&pg=PA19&lpg=PA19&dq=tantric+ravens+beak+exercise&- source=bl&ots=i7ipgopVYl&sig=ACfu3u2A3PCOrVCh4HxpI38Izh- BVJhwElg&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahuKEwjAze3txrHqAhXIgVwKHcF- pBB8Q6AEwDnoECAoQAQ#v=onepage&q=tantricpercent20ra- venspercent20beakpercent20exercise&f=false (accessed July 3, 2020).
    98. Watts, Alan. Nature, man and woman. Vintage, 1991.
    99. Mallinson, James. The Shiva samhita: a critical edition and an English
    translation. YogaVidya. com, 2007.
    100. Samhita, Charaka. “The Subtle Breathing.” All About Tantra, www. en/english/162-the-subtle-breathing (accessed
    July 2, 2020).
    101. Turner, Donna. “In & Out: Breathing Exercises For Better Sex.” Lelo.
    com. Published May 19, 2020.
    es-better-sex/ (accessed July 3, 2020).
    102. “Breath Control – The Basics In Sexual Continence.” tantra/sexuality-advice-practice/sexual-conti- nence/breath-control-the-basics-in-sexual-continence-2/ (accessed July 2, 2020).
    103. Hellmis, Eva. “Sexual problems in males with epilepsy—An interdisci- plinary challenge!.” Seizure 17, no. 2 (2008): 136-140.
    104. Inoue, Hiromasa, Motonori Yoshida, Hitoshi Nishio, and Shinji Tatsumi. “Can hypoxia enhance sexual arousal?-Molecular-biological analysis of the hypothalamus in male rats placed with oestrous female rats under hypoxic conditions.” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine 9, no. 10 (2016): 19512-19520.
    105. Samhita, Charaka. “The Subtle Breathing.” All About Tantra, www. en/english/162-the-subtle-breathing (accessed July 2, 2020)
    106. Avery, Courtney. “Orgasmic Breathing.” Published
    October 3, 2018. mic-breath (accessed July 3, 2020).
    1. Gargaglioni, Luciane H., Danuzia A. Marques, and Luis Gustavo A. Patrone. “Sex differences in breathing.” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology (2019): 110543.
    2. Holdcroft, Anita. “Gender bias in research: how does it affect evi- dence based medicine?.” (2007): 2-3.
    3. Wald, Chelsea, and Corinna Wu. “Of mice and women: the bias in animal models.” (2010): 1571-1572.
    4. Beery, Annaliese K., and Irving zucker. “Sex bias in neuroscience and biomedical research.” Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 35, no. 3 (2011): 565-572.
    5. Liu, Katherine A., and Natalie A. Dipietro Mager. “Women’s involve- ment in clinical trials: historical perspective and future implications.” Pharmacy Practice (Granada) 14, no. 1 (2016): 0-0.
    6. Koenig, Julian, and Julian F. Thayer. “Sex differences in healthy hu- man heart rate variability: a meta-analysis.” Neuroscience & Biobe- havioral Reviews 64 (2016): 288-310.
    7. Cahill, Larry. “Why sex matters for neuroscience.” Nature reviews neuroscience 7, no. 6 (2006): 477-484.
    8. Schisterman, Enrique F., Sunni L. Mumford, and Lindsey A. Sjaarda. “Failure to consider the menstrual cycle phase may cause misinter- pretation of clinical and research findings of cardiometabolic bio- markers in premenopausal women.” Epidemiologic reviews 36, no. 1 (2014): 71-82.
    9. Farha, Samar, Kewal Asosingh, Daniel Laskowski, Jeffrey Hammel, Raed A. Dweik, Herbert P. Wiedemann, and Serpil C. Erzurum. “Ef- fects of the menstrual cycle on lung function variables in women with asthma.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 180, no. 4 (2009): 304-310.
    10. Ray, Laurie. “The menstrual cycle: more than just your period.” Clue. Published December 11, 2018. cycle-a-z/the-menstrual-cycle-more-thanjust-the-period (accessed May 30, 2020).
    11. LoMauro, Antonella, and Andrea Aliverti. “Sex differences in respira- tory function.”Breathe 14, no. 2 (2018): 131-140.
    12. Slatkovska, Lubomira, Dennis Jensen, Gregory AL Davies, and Larry
    A. Wolfe. “Phasic menstrual cycle effects on the control of breathing in healthy women.” Respiratory physiology & neurobiology 154, no. 3 (2006): 379-388.
    13. Macsali, Ferenc, Cecilie Svanes, Line Bjørge, Ernst R. Omenaas, Francisco Gómez Real, Hutchinson, Mathers et al. “Respiratory health in women: from menarche to menopause.” Expert review of respiratory medicine 6, no. 2 (2012): 187-202.
    14. Hayatbakhsh, Mohammad Reza, Suresh Sadasivam, Abdullah A. Mamun, Jake M. Najman, G. M. Williams, and M. J. O’Callaghan. “Maternal smoking during and after pregnancy and lung function in early adulthood: a prospective study.” Thorax 64, no. 9 (2009): 810- 814.
    15. Leon Chaitow, ND, DO. “How Breath Can Impact Fibromyalgia Pain.” Associated Bodywork & Massage Professionals (January 2017)
    16. Ghildiyal, A., B. Iqbal, S. Singh, D. Verma, and S. Singh. “Changes in sympathovagal balance during menstural cycle.” Current Neurobiolo- gy 2, no. 1 (2011): 49-52.
    17. Cimino, Roberta, Mauro Farella, Ambra Michelotti, Roberta Pug- liese, and Roberto Martina. “Does the ovarian cycle influence the pressure-pain threshold of the masticatory muscles in symptom-free women?.” Journal of orofacial pain 14, no. 2 (2000).
    18. Arout, Caroline A., Mehmet Sofuoglu, Lori A. Bastian, and Robert A. Rosenheck. “Gender differences in the prevalence of fibromyalgia and in concomitant medical and psychiatric disorders: A National Veterans Health Administration Study.” Journal of Women’s Health 27, no. 8 (2018): 1035-1044.
    19. Tomas-Carus, Pablo, Jaime C. Branco, Armando Raimundo, Jose A. Parraca, Nuno Batalha, and Clarissa Biehl-Printes. “Breathing exer- cises must be a real and effective intervention to consider in women with fibromyalgia: a pilot randomized controlled trial.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 24, no. 8 (2018): 825- 832.
    20. Garrido, M., M. Y. Castaño, C. Biehl-Printes, M. A. Gomez, J. C. Branco, P. TomasCarus, and A. B. Rodriguez. “Effects of a respira- tory functional training program on pain and sleep quality in patients with fibromyalgia: a pilot study.” Complementary therapies in clinical practice 28 (2017): 116-121.
    21. Chaitow, Leon. “Breathing pattern disorders, motor control, and low back pain.” Journal of osteopathic medicine 7, no. 1 (2004): 33-40.
    22. Bradley, Dinah. Hyperventilation Syndrome (Rev Ed): Breathing Pattern Disorders and How to Overcome Them. Penguin Random House New Zealand Limited, 2012.
    23. Naschitz, Jochanan E., Renata Mussafia-Priselac, Yulia Kovalev, Natalia zaigraykin, Nizar Elias, Itzhak Rosner, and Gleb Slobodin. “Patterns of hypocapnia on tilt in patients with fibromyalgia, chron- ic fatigue syndrome, nonspecific dizziness, and neurally mediated syncope.” The American journal of the medical sciences 331, no. 6 (2006): 295-303.
    24. Çetin, Alp, and Ayşen Sivri. «Respiratory function and dyspnea in fibromyalgia syndrome.» Journal of Musculoskeletal Pain 9, no. 1 (2001): 7-15.
    25. Nduka, Jude Chiedu, and Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo. “Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: A Review of the Literature.” Hamdan Medical Journal 212, no. 1506 (2014): 1-13.
    26. Haugstad, Gro K., Tor S. Haugstad, unni M. Kirste, Siv Leganger, Slawomir Wojniusz, Inger Klemmetsen, and ulrik F. Malt. “Continu- ing improvement of chronic pelvic pain in women after short-term Mensendieck somatocognitive therapy: results of a 1-year follow-up study.” American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 199, no. 6 (2008): 615-e1.
    27. Fink, Per, and Andreas Schröder. “One single diagnosis, bodily distress syndrome, succeeded to capture 10 diagnostic categories of functional somatic syndromes and somatoform disorders.” Journal of psychosomatic research 68, no. 5 (2010): 415-426.
    28. Knockaert, D. C., Frank Buntinx, N. Stoens, Rudi Bruyninckx, and Herman Delooz. “Chest pain in the emergency department: the broad spectrum of causes.” European Journal of Emergency Medi- cine 9, no. 1 (2002): 25-30.
    29. Bartley, Jim. “Breathing and temporomandibular joint disease.” Jour- nal of Bodywork and movement therapies 15, no. 3 (2011): 291-297.
    30. Craft, Rebecca M., Jeffrey S. Mogil, and Anna Maria Aloisi. “Sex differences in pain and analgesia: the role of gonadal hormones.” European journal of pain 8, no. 5 (2004): 397-411.
    31. Wiesenfeld-Hallin, zsuzsanna. “Sex differences in pain perception.” Gender medicine 2, no. 3 (2005): 137-145.
    32. Warren, Michelle P., and Joanna L. Fried. “Temporomandibular disorders and hormones in women.” Cells Tissues Organs 169, no. 3 (2001): 187-192.
    33. Nitzan, Dorrit W. “The process of lubrication impairment and its involvement in temporomandibular joint disc displacement: a the- oretical concept.” Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery 59, no. 1 (2001): 36-45.
    34. Wikipedia contributors, “Estradiol,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclo- pedia, did=954929458 (accessed May 30, 2020).
    35. Tashiro, A., Keiichiro Okamoto, and David A. Bereiter. “NMDA
    receptor blockade reduces temporomandibular joint-evoked activity of trigeminal subnucleus caudalis neurons in an estrogen-dependent manner.” Neuroscience 164, no. 4 (2009): 1805-1812.
    36. LeResche, Linda, Lloyd Mancl, Jeffrey J. Sherman, Beatrice Gandara, and Samuel F. Dworkin. “Changes in temporomandibular pain and other symptoms across the menstrual cycle.” Pain 106, no. 3 (2003): 253-261.
    37. Malanga, Gerard. “Sitting Disease and Its Impact on Your Spine.”, updated, March 14, 2019 https://www.spineuni- spine (accessed July 10, 2020).
    38. Hadžiomerović, Dijana, Kay Thomas Moeller, Peter Licht, Achim Hein, Stephan Veitenhansel, Martina Kusmitsch, and Ludwig Wildt. “The biphasic pattern of end-expiratory carbon dioxide pressure: a method for identification of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle.” Fertility and sterility 90, no. 3 (2008): 731-736.
    39. Grossi, Debora Bevilaqua, Richard B. Lipton, and Marcelo E. Bigal. “Temporomandibular disorders and migraine chronification.” Current pain and headache reports 13, no. 4 (2009): 314-318.
    40. Lupoli, Thomas A., and Richard F. Lockey. “Temporomandibular dys- function: an often overlooked cause of chronic headaches.” Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology 99, no. 4 (2007): 314-318.
    41. Mongini, Franco. “Temporomandibular disorders and tension-type headache.” Current pain and headache reports 11, no. 6 (2007): 465-470.
    42. Campbell, J. Keith, Donald B. Penzien, and Eric M. Wall. “Evi- dence-based guidelines for migraine headache: behavioral and physi- cal treatments.” US Headache Consortium 1, no. 1 (2000): 1-29.
    43. Smitherman, Todd A., Donald B. Penzien, and Jeanetta C. Rains. “Challenges of non-pharmacologic interventions in chronic ten- sion-type headache.” Current pain and headache reports 11, no. 6 (2007): 471-477.
    44. Hoff, J. I., B. R. Bloem, M. D. Ferrari, and G. J. Lammers. “A breath- taking headache.”Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 75, no. 3 (2004): 509-509
    45. Fuglsang, Cecilia H., Troels Johansen, Kai Kaila, Helge Kasch, and Flemming W. Bach. “Treatment of acute migraine by a partial re- breathing device: A randomized controlled pilot study.” Cephalalgia 38, no. 10 (2018): 1632-1643.
    46. Blau, J. N., and S. L. Dexter. “Hyperventilation during migraine attacks.” British medical journal 280, no. 6226 (1980): 1254.
    47. Harnod, Tomor, Yu-Chiao Wang, and Chia-Hung Kao. “Association of migraine and sleep-related breathing disorder: a population-based cohort study.” Medicine 94, no. 36 (2015).
    48. MacGregor, E. Anne. “Menstrual migraine: therapeutic approaches.”
    Therapeutic advances in neurological disorders 2, no. 5 (2009): 327-
    49. Wöber, Ch, W. Brannath, K. Schmidt, M. Kapitan, E. Rudel, P.
    Wessely, Ç. Wöber-Bingöl, and PAMINA Study Group. “Prospective analysis of factors related to migraine attacks: the PAMINA study.” Cephalalgia 27, no. 4 (2007): 304-314.
    50. MacGregor, E. A., A. Frith, J. Ellis, L. Aspinall, and A. Hackshaw. “Prevention of menstrual attacks of migraine: a double-blind place- bo-controlled crossover study.” Neurology 67, no. 12 (2006): 2159- 2163.
    51. Calhoun, Anne, and Sutapa Ford. “Elimination of menstrual-related migraine beneficially impacts chronification and medication overuse.” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain 48, no. 8 (2008): 1186-1193.
    52. MacGregor, E. Anne. “Menstrual migraine: a clinical review.” BMJ Sexual & Reproductive Health 33, no. 1 (2007): 36-47.
    53. LaGuardia, Katherine D., Alan C. Fisher, James D. Bainbridge, John M. LoCoco, and Andrew J. Friedman. “Suppression of estrogen-with- drawal headache with extended transdermal contraception.” Fertility and sterility 83, no. 6 (2005): 1875-1877.
    54. MacGregor, E. A., and J. Guillebaud. “Combined oral contraceptives, migraine and ischaemic stroke. Clinical and Scientific Committee of the Faculty of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care and the Family Planning Association.” The British journal of family plan- ning 24, no. 2 (1998): 55-60.
    55. Hodges, P. W., R. Sapsford, and L. H. M. Pengel. “Postural and respiratory functions of the pelvic floor muscles.” Neurourology and urodynamics 26, no. 3 (2007): 362-371.
    56. Lee, Diane G., Linda-Joy Lee, and L. McLaughlin. “Stability, conti- nence and breathing: the role of fascia following pregnancy and deliv- ery.” Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 12, no. 4 (2008): 333-348.
    57. Gibbons, S. G. T. “The model of psoas major stability function.” In Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Movement Dysfunc- tion. Edinburgh, Scotland. 2001.
    58. Jones, R., 2001. Pelvic floor muscle, rehabilitation. Urol. News 5 (5), 2–4
    59. Chaitow, Leon, and Ruth Jones. Chronic Pelvic Pain and Dysfunc- tion-E-Book: Practical Physical Medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2012.
    60. Smith, Michelle D., Michel W. Coppieters, and Paul W. Hodges.
    “Postural response of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles in wom- en with and without incontinence.” Neurourology and urodynamics 26, no. 3 (2007): 377-385.
    61. Leon, Chaitow. Interview with Tracy McLoughlin. “Women’s health, the Pelvic Floor Paradox and a Naturopathic approach.” Cam. Pub- lished September 2007: 46-48 http:// wp-content/uploads/2019/04/womens_health_the_pelvic_floor.pdf (accessed May 16, 2020).
    62. Park, Hankyu, and Dongwook Han. “The effect of the correlation be- tween the contraction of the pelvic floor muscles and diaphragmatic motion during breathing.” Journal of physical therapy science 27, no. 7 (2015): 2113-2115.
    63. Lieberoth, Sofie, Elisabeth Juul Gade, Jesper Brok, Vibeke Backer, and Simon Francis Thomsen. “Age at menarche and risk of asthma: systematic review and meta-analysis.” Journal of Asthma 51, no. 6 (2014): 559-565.
    64. Cephus, Jacqueline-Yvonne, Matthew T. Stier, Hubaida Fuseini, Jeffrey A. Yung, Shinji Toki, Melissa H. Bloodworth, Weisong zhou et al. “Testosterone attenuates group 2 innate lymphoid cell-mediated airway inflammation.” Cell reports 21, no. 9 (2017): 2487-2499.
    65. Newcomb, Dawn C., Jacqueline Yvonne Cephus, Madison G. Boswell, John M. Fahrenholz, Emily W. Langley, Amy S. Feldman, Weisong zhou et al. “Estrogen and progesterone decrease let-7f mi- croRNA expression and increase IL-23/IL-23 receptor signaling and IL-17A production in patients with severe asthma.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 136, no. 4 (2015): 1025-1034.
    66. Farha, Samar, Kewal Asosingh, Daniel Laskowski, Jeffrey Hammel, Raed A. Dweik, Herbert P. Wiedemann, and Serpil C. Erzurum. “Ef- fects of the menstrual cycle on lung function variables in women with asthma.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 180, no. 4 (2009): 304-310.
    67. Carlson, Matthew J. “Catch it before it kills: progesterone, obesity, and the prevention of endometrial cancer.” Discovery medicine 14, no. 76 (2012): 215.
    68. Cohen, J., W. R. Douma, N. H. T. Ten Hacken, M. Oudkerk, and D. S. Postma. “Physiology of the small airways: A gender difference?.” Respiratory medicine 102, no. 9 (2008): 1264-1271.
    69. Romieu, Isabelle, Alban Fabre, Agnes Fournier, Francine Kauff- mann, Raphaëlle Varraso, Sylvie Mesrine, Benedicte Leynaert, and Francoise Clavel-Chapelon. “Postmenopausal hormone therapy and asthma onset in the E3N cohort.” Thorax 65, no. 4 (2010): 292-297.
    70. Triebner, Kai, Ane Johannessen, Luca Puggini, Bryndís Benedikts- dóttir, Randi J. Bertelsen, Ersilia Bifulco, Shyamali C. Dharmage et al. “Menopause as a predictor of new-onset asthma: a longitudinal Northern European population study.” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 137, no. 1 (2016): 50-57.
    71. Troisi, Rebecca J., Frank E. Speizer, Walter C. Willett, D. Trichopou- los, and Bernard Rosner. “Menopause, postmenopausal estrogen preparations, and the risk of adult-onset asthma. A prospective cohort study.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medi- cine 152, no. 4 (1995): 1183-1188.
    72. Carlson, Catherine L., Mary Cushman, Paul L. Enright, Jane A. Cauley, and Anne B. Newman. “Hormone replacement therapy is associated with higher FEV1 in elderly women.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 163, no. 2 (2001): 423-428.
    73. Mador, M. Jeffery, and Erkan Bozkanat. “Skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.” Respiratory research 2, no. 4 (2001): 216.
    74. Wedzicha, Jadwiga A., Dave Singh, Ioanna Tsiligianni, Christine Jenkins, Sebastian Fucile, Robert Fogel, Steven Shen, Pankaj Goyal, Karen Mezzi, and Konstantinos Kostikas. “Treatment response to indacaterol/glycopyrronium versus salmeterol/fluticasone in exacer- bating COPD patients by gender: a post-hoc analysis in the FLAME study.” Respiratory research 20, no. 1 (2019): 4.
    75. Yang, Jilan, David Hammond, Pete Driezen, Geoffrey T. Fong, and Yuan Jiang. “Health knowledge and perception of risks among Chi- nese smokers and non-smokers: findings from the Wave 1 ITC China Survey.” Tobacco Control 19, no. Suppl 2 (2010): i18-i23.
    76. Gut-Gobert, Christophe, Arnaud Cavaillès, Adrien Dixmier, Stépha- nie Guillot, Stéphane Jouneau, Christophe Leroyer, Sylvain March- and-Adam et al. “Women and COPD: do we need more evidence?.” European Respiratory Review 28, no. 151 (2019).
    77. Pölkki, Mari, and Markus J. Rantala. “Smoking affects womens’ sex hormone-regulated body form.” American journal of public health 99, no. 8 (2009): 1350-1350.
    78. Key, T. J. A., M. C. Pike, J. B. Brown, C. Hermon, D. S. Allen, and D. Y. Wang. “Cigarette smoking and urinary oestrogen excretion in pre- menopausal and post-menopausal women.” British journal of cancer 74, no. 8 (1996): 1313-1316.
    79. Tang, Rosalind, Abigail Fraser, and Maria Christine Magnus. “Female reproductive history in relation to chronic obstructive pulmonary dis- ease and lung function in uK biobank: a prospective population-based cohort study.” BMJ open 9, no. 10 (2019).
    80. Carey, Michelle A., Jeffrey W. Card, James W. Voltz, Samuel J. Arbes Jr, Dori R. Germolec, Kenneth S. Korach, and Darryl C. zeldin. “It’s all about sex: gender, lung development and lung disease.” Trends
    in Endocrinology & Metabolism 18, no. 8 (2007): 308-313.
    81. Netzer, Nikolaus C., Arn H. Eliasson, and Kingman P. Strohl. “Wom-
    en with sleep apnea have lower levels of sex hormones.” Sleep and
    Breathing 7, no. 01 (2003): 025-030.
    82. Shahar, Eyal, Susan Redline, Terry Young, Lori L. Boland, Carol M.
    Baldwin, F. Javier Nieto, George T. O’Connor, David M. Rapoport, and John A. Robbins. “Hormone replacement therapy and sleep-dis- ordered breathing.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 167, no. 9 (2003): 1186-1192.
    83. Stavaras, C., C. Pastaka, M. Papala, S. Gravas, V. Tzortzis, M. Mele- kos, G. Seitanidis, and K. I. Gourgoulianis. “Sexual function in pre-and post-menopausal women with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.” International journal of impotence research 24, no. 6 (2012): 228- 233.
    84. Bairam, Aida, NaggaPraveena uppari, Sébastien Mubayed, and Vincent Joseph. “An overview on the respiratory stimulant effects of caffeine and progesterone on response to hypoxia and apnea frequen- cy in developing rats.” In Arterial Chemoreceptors in Physiology and Pathophysiology, pp. 211-220. Springer, Cham, 2015
    85. Kunitomo, Fumio, Hiroshi Kimura, Koichiro Tatsumi, Takayuki Kuriyama, Shohei Watanabe, and Yoshiyuki Honda. “Sex differences in awake ventilatory drive and abnormal breathing during sleep in eucapnic obesity.” Chest 93, no. 5 (1988): 968-976.
    86. Wimms, Alison, Holger Woehrle, Sahisha Ketheeswaran, Dinesh Ra- manan, and Jeffery Armitstead. “Obstructive sleep apnea in women: specific issues and interventions.” BioMed research international 2016 (2016).
    87. Nillni, Yael I., Kelly J. Rohan, and Michael J. zvolensky. “The role of menstrual cycle phase and anxiety sensitivity in catastrophic misinterpretation of physical symptoms during a CO 2 challenge.” Archives of women’s mental health 15, no. 6 (2012): 413-422.
    88. Sigmon, Sandra T., Diana M. Dorhofer, Kelly J. Rohan, Lisa A. Ho- tovy, Nina E. Boulard, and Christine M. Fink. “Psychophysiological, somatic, and affective changes across the menstrual cycle in women with panic disorder.” Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 68, no. 3 (2000): 425.
    89. Doornbos, Bennard, Dirk S. Fokkema, Margo Molhoek, Marit AC Tanke, Folkert Postema, and Jakob Korf. “Abrupt rather than gradual hormonal changes induce postpartum blues-like behavior in rats.” Life sciences 84, no. 3-4 (2009): 69-74.
    90. Hayen, Anja, Mari Herigstad, and Kyle TS Pattinson. “understand- ing dyspnea as a complex individual experience.” Maturitas 76, no. 1 (2013): 45-50. Marques, Alessandra Aparecida, Mário Cesar do Nascimento Bevilaqua, Alberto Morais Pinto da Fonseca, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Sandrine Thuret, and Gisele Pereira Dias. “Gender differences in the neurobiology of anxiety: focus on adult hippocampal neurogenesis.” Neural Plasticity 2016 (2016).
    91. Bromberger, Joyce T., Howard M. Kravitz, Yuefang Chang, John F. Randolph Jr, NancyE. Avis, Ellen B. Gold, and Karen A. Matthews. “Does risk for anxiety increase during the menopausal transition? Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN).” Menopause (New York, NY) 20, no. 5 (2013): 488.
    92. Neuroscience News. “Breathing during exercise is harder for women than men.” Neuroscience News. Published April 27, 2020. https:// wAR04xbxveuaX5hTzqASfJ5AIufa4ppBHDmxf TM45Othk3VA- tOujV4wO0yO4 (accessed May 13, 2020).
    93. Granger, Emily A., Leah M. Mann, Jason S. Chan, Annie Yu, and Paolo Dominelli. “Reducing Turbulent Airflow Lowers Healthy Females Work Of Breathing During Exercise To A Level Similar To Males.” The FASEB Journal 34, no. S1 (2020): 1-1.
    94. Lebrun, Constance M. “Effect of the different phases of the men- strual cycle and oral contraceptives on athletic performance.” Sports medicine 16, no. 6 (1993): 400-430.
    95. Dokumacı, Bircan, and Tahir Hazır. “Effects of the Menstrual Cycle on Running Economy: Oxygen Cost Versus Caloric Cost.” Research quarterly for exercise and sport 90, no. 3 (2019): 318-326.
    96. Cannarella, Rossella, Federica Barbagallo, Rosita A. Condorelli, An- tonio Aversa, Sandro La Vignera, and Aldo E. Calogero. “Osteoporo- sis from an Endocrine Perspective: The Role of Hormonal Changes in the Elderly.” Journal of clinical medicine 8, no. 10 (2019): 1564.
    97. Khosla, Sundeep, Merry Jo Oursler, and David G. Monroe. “Estrogen and the skeleton.”Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 23, no. 11 (2012): 576-581.
    98. Wood, Katherine. “REDS- a sufferer’s view.” Momentumsports. (ac- cessed July 10, 2020).
    1. Chaitow, L. “Breathing pattern disorders and lumbopelvic pain and dysfunction. an update.” (2012).
    2. Ott, Helmut W., Verena Mattle, ulrich S. zimmermann, Peter Licht, Kay Moeller, and Ludwig Wildt. “Symptoms of premenstrual syn- drome may be caused by hyperventilation.” Fertility and sterility 86,
    no. 4 (2006): 1001-e17.
    3. Mournian, Ada. “Nasal Breathing Boosts Your Sex Life.” Ada- Published March 30, 2015. https://adamournian. com/2015/03/nasal-breathing-boosts-your-sex-life/ (accessed July 10, 2020).
    4. Michopoulos, Vasiliki, Sarah L. Berga, and Mark E. Wilson. “Estradiol and progesterone modify the effects of the serotonin reuptake trans- porter polymorphism on serotonergic responsivity to citalopram.” Experimental and clinical psychopharmacology 19, no. 6 (2011): 401.
    5. Yonkers, Kimberly A., Robert F. Casper, and William F. Crowley Jr. “Epidemiology and pathogenesis of premenstrual syndrome and premenstrual dysphoric disorder.” (2015).
    6. Hilaire, Gérard, Nicolas Voituron, Clément Menuet, Ronaldo M. Ichiyama, Hari H. Subramanian, and Mathias Dutschmann. “The role of serotonin in respiratory function and dysfunction.” Respiratory physiology & neurobiology 174, no. 1-2 (2010): 76-88.
    7. Toward, Marie A., Ana P. Abdala, Sharon J. Knopp, Julian FR Paton, and John M. Bissonnette. “Increasing brain serotonin corrects CO2 chemosensitivity in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2)-defi- cient mice.” Experimental physiology 98, no. 3 (2013): 842-849.
    8. Vickers, Kristin, and Richard J. McNally. “Is premenstrual dysphoria a variant of panic disorder?: A review.” Clinical Psychology Review 24, no. 8 (2004): 933-956.
    9. Medsafe Pharmacovigilance Team. “Medsafe Pharmacovigilance Team.” nz September 14, 2017. committees/marc/reports/171-Risk-spercent20ofpercent20severe- percent20depressionpercent20etc.percent20with-percent20hor- monalpercent20contraceptives.pdf (accessed May 23, 2020).
    10. Webb, J. L. “Nutritional effects of oral contraceptive use: a review.” The Journal of reproductive medicine 25, no. 4 (1980): 150-156.
    11. Soma-Pillay, Priya, Nelson-Piercy Catherine, Heli Tolppanen, Alex- andre Mebazaa, Heli Tolppanen, and Alexandre Mebazaa. “Physiolog- ical changes in pregnancy.” Cardiovascular journal of Africa 27, no. 2 (2016): 89.
    12. Jensen, Dennis, James Duffin, Yuk-Miu Lam, Katherine A. Webb, Jeremy A. Simpson, Gregory AL Davies, Larry A. Wolfe, and Denis E. O’Donnell. “Physiological mechanisms of hyperventilation during human pregnancy.” Respiratory physiology & neurobiology 161, no. 1 (2008): 76-86.
    13. Behan, Mary, and Richard Kinkead. “Neuronal control of breathing: sex and stress hormones.” Comprehensive Physiology 1, no. 4 (2011): 2101-2139.
    14. Tal, Reshef, Hugh S. Taylor, Richard O. Burney, Stephen B. Mooney, and Linda C. Giudice. “Endocrinology of pregnancy.” In Endotext
    [Internet]. MDText. com, Inc., 2015.
    15. Jeong, Hyunyoung. “Altered drug metabolism during pregnancy: hor-
    monal regulation of drug-metabolizing enzymes.” Expert opinion on
    drug metabolism & toxicology 6, no. 6 (2010): 689-699.
    16. Milne, J. A. “The respiratory response to pregnancy.” Postgraduate
    medical journal 55, no. 643 (1979): 318-324.
    17. Gargaglioni, Luciane H., Danuzia A. Marques, and Luis Gustavo A.
    Patrone. “Sex differences in breathing.” Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology (2019): 110543.
    18. Knuttgen, Howard G., and K. Emerson Jr. “Physiological response to pregnancy at rest and during exercise.” Journal of Applied Physiology 36, no. 5 (1974): 549-553.
    19. LoMauro, Antonella, and Andrea Aliverti. “Respiratory physiology of pregnancy: physiology masterclass.” Breathe 11, no. 4 (2015): 297- 301.
    20. Hollingsworth, H. M., and R. S. Irwin. “Acute respiratory failure in pregnancy.” Clinics in chest medicine 13, no. 4 (1992): 723-740.
    21. Truong, Kimberly Kay, and Christian Guilleminault. “Sleep disordered breathing in pregnant women: maternal and fetal risk, treatment considerations, and future perspectives.” Expert review of respiratory medicine 12, no. 3 (2018): 177-189.
    22. Blais, Lucie, Fatima-zohra Kettani, and Amelie Forget. “Relationship between maternal asthma, its severity and control and abortion.” Human Reproduction 28, no. 4 (2013): 908-915.
    23. Karan, Suzanne, and Yehuda Ginosar. “Gestational sleep apnea: have we been caught napping?.” International Journal of Obstetric Anes- thesia 26 (2016): 1-3.
    24. Chen, Yi-Hua, Jiunn-Horng Kang, Ching-Chun Lin, I-Te Wang, Joseph J. Keller, and Herng-Ching Lin. “Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes.” American journal of obstet- rics and gynecology 206, no. 2 (2012): 136-e1.
    25. Mhyre, Jill M., Monica N. Riesner, Linda S. Polley, and Norah N. Naughton. “A series of anesthesia-related maternal deaths in Mich- igan, 1985–2003.” Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists 106, no. 6 (2007): 1096-1104.
    26. Kapsimalis, Fotis, and Meir Kryger. “Sleep breathing disorders in the uS female population.” Journal of women’s health 18, no. 8 (2009): 1211-1219.
    27. Sagheer, Farah, Chakradhar Venkata, and Saiprakash B. Venkateshi- ah. “A 26-year-old pregnant woman with fatigue and excessive daytime sleepiness.” Chest 134, no. 3 (2008): 637-639.
    28. Venkata, Chakradhar, and Saiprakash B. Venkateshiah. “Sleep-dis- ordered breathing during pregnancy.” The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 22, no. 2 (2009): 158-168.
    29. Gavin, Mary L. “What Is the Apgar Score?.”, February 2018. https:// (accessed July 14, 2020).
    30. Rythén, Marianne, Birgit Thilander, and Agneta Robertson. “Den- to-alveolar characteristics in adolescents born extremely preterm.” The European Journal of Orthodontics 35, no. 4 (2013): 475-482.
    31. Sacchi, Chiara, Claudia Marino, Chiara Nosarti, Alessio Vieno, Silvia Visentin, and Alessandra Simonelli. “Association of Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Small for Gestational Age Status With Child- hood Cognitive Outcomes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.” JAMA Pediatrics (2020).
    32. Thornburg, Kent L., and Nicole Marshall. “The placenta is the center of the chronic disease universe.” American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology 213, no. 4 (2015): S14-S20.
    33. Anniverno, Roberta, Alessandra Bramante, Claudio Mencacci, and Federico Durbano. “Anxiety disorders in pregnancy and the post- partum period.” New iInsights into anxiety disorders. Rijeka: InTech (2013): 259-85.
    34. McMahon, C. A., Jacky Boivin, F. L. Gibson, Karin Hammarberg, K. Wynter, Douglas Saunders, and J. Fisher. “Pregnancy-specific anxi- ety, ART conception and infant temperament at 4 months post-par- tum.” Human Reproduction 28, no. 4 (2013): 997-1005.
    35. Wenzel, Amy, Erin N. Haugen, Lydia C. Jackson, and Jennifer R. Brendle. “Anxiety symptoms and disorders at eight weeks postpar- tum.” Journal of anxiety disorders 19, no. 3 (2005): 295-311.
    36. Beck, Cheryl Tatano, and Jeanne Driscoll. Postpartum mood and anx- iety disorders: A clinician’s guide. Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2006.
    37. Altshuler, Lori L., Victoria Hendrick, and Lee S. Cohen. “An update
    on mood and anxiety disorders during pregnancy and the postpartum period.” Primary care companion to the Journal of clinical psychiatry 2, no. 6 (2000): 217.
    38. Sardinha, Aline, Rafael Christophe da Rocha Freire, Walter Araújo zin, and Antonio Egidio Nardi. “Respiratory manifestations of panic disorder: causes, consequences and therapeutic implications.” Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia 35, no. 7 (2009): 698-708.
    39. z. Jukic, Anne Marie, Clarice R. Weinberg, Allen J. Wilcox, and Don- na D. Baird. “Effects of early pregnancy loss on hormone levels in the subsequent menstrual cycle.” Gynecological Endocrinology 26, no. 12 (2010): 897-901.
    40. Santilli, Mara. “What Happens to Your Body After A Miscarriage and

    How to Heal.” Parsley Health Articles. Published February 19, 2020. blog/what-happens-to-your-body- after-a-miscarriage/ (accessed May 30, 2020).
    41. Macsali, Ferenc, Cecilie Svanes, Line Bjørge, Ernst R. Omenaas, Francisco Gómez Real, Hutchinson, Mathers et al. “Respiratory health in women: from menarche to menopause.” Expert review of respiratory medicine 6, no. 2 (2012): 187-202.
    42. Forbes, L., D. Jarvis, and P. Burney. “Do hormonal contraceptives influence asthma severity?.” European Respiratory Journal 14, no. 5 (1999): 1028-1033.
    43. Lange, P., J. Parner, E. Prescott, C. Suppli ulrik, and J. Vestbo. “Ex- ogenous female sex steroid hormones and risk of asthma and asth- ma-like symptoms: a cross sectional study of the general population.” Thorax 56, no. 8 (2001): 613-616.
    44. Troisi, Rebecca J., Frank E. Speizer, Walter C. Willett, D. Trichopou- los, and Bernard Rosner. “Menopause, postmenopausal estrogen preparations, and the risk of adult-onset asthma. A prospective cohort study.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medi- cine 152, no. 4 (1995): 1183-1188.
    45. Jenkins, Mark A., Shyamali C. Dharmage, L. B. Flander, Jo A. Dou- glass, A. M. ugoni, John B. Carlin, S. M. Sawyer, Graham G. Giles, and John L. Hopper. “Parity and decreased use of oral contraceptives as predictors of asthma in young women.” Clinical & Experimental Allergy 36, no. 5 (2006): 609-613.
    46. Nwaru, Bright I., and Aziz Sheikh. “Hormonal contraceptives and asthma in women of reproductive age: analysis of data from serial national Scottish Health Surveys.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 108, no. 9 (2015): 358-371.
    47. Matheson, Melanie C., John A. Burgess, Melisa Yz Lau, Adrian J. Lowe, Lyle C. Gurrin, John L. Hopper, Graham G. Giles et al. “Hor- monal contraception increases risk of asthma among obese but de- creases it among nonobese subjects: a prospective, popu-lation-based cohort study.” ERJ open research 1, no. 2 (2015): 00026-2015.
    48. Family Planning Association. “CONTRACEPTION: PAST, PRES- ENT AND FuTuRE FACTSHEET.” Family Planning Association (FPA). Published/updated November 2010. sheets/contraception-past-present-future (accessed May 31, 2020).
    49. Rehman, Shahnaz, Thomas P. Vacek, Nada S. Khan, Abdulmonam Ali, Mohammad Taleb, Hani Badi, Aahd Kubbara, Ragheb Assaly, and Jefffery Hammersley. “Chest Pain And Shortness Of Breath, In A Young Lady, Don’t Forget To Ask About Contraception.” In C52. CRITICAL CARE CASE REPORTS: UNUSUAL GI CAUSES OF CRITICAL ILLNESS, pp. A5800-A5800. American Thoracic Soci-
    ety, 2017.
    50. Choi, Ji Hui, Ha-Yeon Kim, Sung Soo Lee, and SiHyun Cho. “Migra-
    tion of a contraceptive subdermal device into the lung.” Obstetrics &
    gynecology science 60, no. 3 (2017): 314-317.
    51. Hadžiomerović, Dijana, Kay Thomas Moeller, Peter Licht, Achim
    Hein, Stephan Veitenhansel, Martina Kusmitsch, and Ludwig Wildt. “The biphasic pattern of end-expiratory carbon dioxide pressure: a method for identification of the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle.” Fertility and sterility 90, no. 3 (2008): 731-736.
    52. Rooney, Kristin L., and Alice D. Domar. “The relationship between stress and infertility.”Dialogues in clinical neuroscience 20, no. 1 (2018): 41.
    53. Meuret, Alicia E., David Rosenfield, Anke Seidel, Lavanya Bhaskara, and Stefan G. Hofmann. “Respiratory and cognitive mediators of treatment change in panic disorder: Evidence for intervention speci- ficity.” Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 78, no. 5 (2010): 691.
    54. Kloss, Jacqueline D., Michael L. Perlis, Jessica A. zamzow, Elizabeth J. Culnan, and Clarisa R. Gracia. “Sleep, sleep disturbance, and fertility in women.” Sleep medicine reviews 22 (2015): 78-87.
    55. Wang, I-Duo, Yung-Liang Liu, Chung-Kan Peng, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Shan-Yueh Chang, Chang-Huei Tsao, and Wu-Chien Chien PhD. “Non-apnea sleep disorder increases the risk of subsequent female infertility—a nationwide population-based cohort study.” Sleep 41, no. 1 (2018): zsx186.
    56. Dratva, Julia, Francisco Gómez Real, Christian Schindler, ursula Ack- ermann-Liebrich, Margaret W. Gerbase, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Cecilie Svanes et al. “Is age at menopause increasing across Europe? Results on age at menopause and determinants from two popula- tion-based studies.” Menopause 16, no. 2 (2009): 385-394.
    57. Chotirmall, Sanjay H. “When Epidemiology Meets Physiology: Early Menopause and Associated Respiratory Risk.” (2020): 419-420.
    58. Preston, Megan E., Dennis Jensen, Ian Janssen, and John T. Fisher. “Effect of menopause on the chemical control of breathing and its relationship with acid-base status.” American Journal of Physiolo- gy-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 296, no. 3 (2009): R722-R727.
    59. Campbell, Brittany, Dinh S. Bui, Julie A. Simpson, Caroline J. Lodge, Adrian J. Lowe, Gayan Bowatte, Bénédicte Leynaert et al. “Early Age at Natural Menopause Is Related to Lower Post-Bronchodilator Lung Function. A Longitudinal Population-based Study.” Annals of the American Thoracic Society 17, no. 4 (2020): 429-437.
    60. British Menopause Society. “HRT Womens Health Initiative: the final outcome.” British Menopause Society. Published April 24, 2006. final-outcome/ (accessed May 26, 2020).
    61. British Menopause Society. “British Menopause Society. “HRT Womens Health Initiative: the final outcome.” British Menopause So- ciety. Published August 23, 2016. https:// breast-cancer-now-study-finds-effect-combined-hrt-breast-cancer- risk-likely-underestimated/ (accessed December 11, 2020).
    62. European Respiratory Society (ERS). “Hormone replacement ther- apy can slow decline in lung function for middle-aged women.” Sci- enceDaily. releases/2017/09/170915170517. htm (accessed May 26, 2020).
    63. Polverino, F., J. P. de Torres, C. Santoriello, A. Capuozzo, I. Mauro, Joselyn Rojas-Quintero, B. D’Agostino et al. “Gas exchange and breathing pattern in women with postmenopausal bone fragility.” Respiratory medicine 137 (2018): 141-146.
    64. Mollard, Elizabeth, Laura Bilek, and Nancy Waltman. “Emerging evidence on the link between depressive symptoms and bone loss in postmenopausal women.” International journal of women’s health 10 (2018): 1.
    65. Kelly, Ryan R., Lindsay T. McDonald, Nathaniel R. Jensen, Sara J. Sidles, and Amanda C. LaRue. “Impacts of psychological stress on osteoporosis: clinical implications and treatment Interactions.” Fron- tiers in psychiatry 10 (2019): 200.
    66. Catalano, Antonino, Gabriella Martino, Federica Bellone, Agostino Gaudio, Carmen Lasco, Viviana Langher, Antonino Lasco, and Nunzi- ata Morabito. “Anxiety levels predict fracture risk in postmenopausal women assessed for osteoporosis.” Menopause 25, no. 10 (2018): 1110-1115.
    67. Sood, Richa, Amit Sood, Sherry L. Wolf, Breanna M. Linquist, Heshan Liu, Jeff A. Sloan, Daniel V. Satele, Charles L. Loprinzi, and Debra L. Barton. “Paced breathing compared with usual breathing for hot flashes.” Menopause 20, no. 2 (2013): 179-184.
    68. Chaitow, Leon, Dinah Bradley, and Christopher Gilbert. Recognizing and Treating Breathing Disorders E-Book. Elsevier Health Sciences, 2014.
    69. Freedman, Robert R., and Suzanne Woodward. “Behavioral treatment of menopausal hot flushes: evaluation by ambulatory monitoring.” American journal of obstetrics and gynecology 167, no. 2 (1992): 436-439.
    70. Arnardottir, Erna Sif, Christer Janson, Erla Bjornsdottir, Bryndis Benediktsdottir, Sigurdur Juliusson, Samuel T. Kuna, Allan I. Pack, and Thorarinn Gislason. “Nocturnal sweating—a common symptom of obstructive sleep apnoea: the Icelandic sleep apnoea cohort.” BMJ open 3, no. 5 (2013).
    1. Wu, Brian, Deborah Weatherspoon. “The link between hyperglycemia and diabetes.” Medical News Today. Published February 26, 2019. (accessed January 10, 2020).
    2. TrialNet. T1 Diabetes Facts., 2018. (accessed, July 18, 2020).
    3. “What is Diabetes?.” NIH National Institute of Diabetes and Diges- tive and Kidney Diseases. Published December 2016. www.niddk.nih. gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/ what-is-diabetes (ac- cessed January 10, 2020).
    4. “What is Diabetes?.” International Diabetes Federation. aboutdiabetes/ what-is-diabetes.html?gclid=CjwKCAjwxaXtBRBbEi- wAPqPxcPquJ5Of V3GOFkXxsin38jXt8Oq9z-CLMH9H333GVuz- pjGuH-0OuhBoCqwEQAvD_BwE (accessed January 10, 2020).
    5. The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseas- es. “Symptoms and Causes of Diabetes.” Published December 2016. www.niddk.nih. gov/health-information/diabetes/ overview/symptoms-causes#causes (accessed July 18, 2020).
    6. Maahs, D. M., Nancy West, Jean Lawrence, Elizabeth Mayer-Davis. “Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes.” Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America (2010) 39(3), 481–497.
    7. Streisand, Randi, and Maureen Monaghan. “Young children with type 1 diabetes: challenges, research, and future directions.” Current diabetes reports 14, no. 9 (2014): 520.
    8. Barroso, I. “Genetics of type 2 diabetes.” Diabetic Medicine 22, no. 5 (2005): 517-535.
    9. Diabetes uK. “Diabetes in the uK 2010. Key Statistic on Diabetes.” Published 2010. es-s3/2017-11/diabetes_in_the_uk_2010. pdf (accessed July 18, 2020).
    10. Pampel, Fred C., Patrick M. Krueger, and Justin T. Denney. “Socio- economic disparities in health behaviors.” Annual review of sociology 36 (2010): 349-370.
    11. Forouhi, Nita Gandhi, and Nicholas J. Wareham. “Epidemiology of diabetes.” Medicine 38, no. 11 (2010): 602-606.
    12. Pitocco, Dario, Leonello Fuso, Emanuele G. Conte, Francesco zaccardi, Carola Condoluci, Giuseppe Scavone, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, and Giovanni Ghirlanda. “The diabetic lung-a new target

    organ?.” The review of diabetic studies: RDS 9, no. 1 (2012): 23.
    13. Lecube, Albert, Rafael Simó, Maria Pallayova, Naresh M. Punjabi,
    Carolina López Cano, Cecilia Turino, Cristina Hernández, and Ferran Barbé. “Pulmonary function and sleep breathing: two new targets for type 2 diabetes care.” Endocrine reviews 38, no. 6 (2017): 550-573.
    14. Yeh, Fawn, Anne E. Dixon, Susan Marion, Carl Schaefer, Ying zhang, Lyle G. Best, Darren Calhoun, Everett R. Rhoades, and Elisa T. Lee. “Obesity in adults is associated with reduced lung function in meta- bolic syndrome and diabetes: the Strong Heart Study.” Diabetes care 34, no. 10 (2011): 2306-2313.
    15. Da Costa, Robert, Pezad Doctor, Kaustubh Mahajan, and Vidy- adhara G. Lakkappan. “Bilateral phrenic nerve palsy in a diabetic causing respiratory failure.” Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine: Peer-reviewed, Official Publication of Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine 22, no. 10 (2018): 737.
    16. Chapman, Adam. “Type 2 diabetes symptoms: The change in your breathing pattern to watch out for.” Express. March 10, 2020. www. type-2-diabetes-symp- toms-signs-shortness-of-breath-diet-exercise-lower-blood-sugar (accessed July 18, 2020).
    17. Maji D. Prevention of microvascular and macrovascular complications in diabetes mellitus. J Indian Med Assoc. 2004;102(8): 426, 428, 430.
    18. National Kidney Foundation. “Diabetes A Major Risk Factor for Kidney Disease.” Published 2015. content/diabetes (accessed July 18, 2020).
    19. de Moraes, Alice Gallo, and Salim Surani. “Effects of diabetic ketoac- idosis in the respiratory system.” World Journal of Diabetes 10, no. 1 (2019): 16.
    20. Yousefinezhadi, Bahar, Majid Ravanbakhsh, Maryam Saadat, Mehr- noosh zakerkish, and Shahin Goharpey. “The Impact of Type 2 Diabe- tes Mellitus on Respiratory System.” Journal of Modern Rehabilita- tion 12, no. 3 (2018): 157-162.
    21. Goldman, Michael David. “Lung dysfunction in diabetes.” Diabetes care 26, no. 6 (2003): 1915-1918.
    22. zineldin, Mokhles Abdel Fadil, Kamel Abdel Ghaffar Hasan, and Ahmed Salama Al-Adl. “Respiratory function in type II diabetes mel- litus.” Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis 64, no. 1 (2015): 219-223.
    23. Litonjua, Augusto A., Ross Lazarus, David Sparrow, Debbie DeMolles, and Scott T. Weiss. “Lung function in type 2 diabetes: the Normative Aging Study.” Respiratory medicine 99, no. 12 (2005): 1583-1590.
    24. Ford, Earl S., and David M. Mannino. “Prospective association
    between lung function and the incidence of diabetes: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study.” Diabetes Care 27, no. 12 (2004): 2966-2970.
    25. Wanke, Theodor, Dieter Formanek, Martin Auinger, Wolfgang Popp, Hartmut zwick, and Karl Irsigler. “Inspiratory muscle performance and pulmonary function changes in insulin-dependent diabetes melli- tus.” Am Rev Respir Dis 143, no. 1 (1991): 97-100.
    26. Kılıçlı, Fatih, Sebila Dökmetaş, Ferhan Candan, Sefa Özşahin,
    Serdal Korkmaz, Elvan Amasyalı, Koray Fakıoğlu, Kürşat Dal, Fettah Acıbucu, and İlkay Çakır. “Inspiratory muscle strength is correlated with carnitine levels in type 2 diabetes.” Endocrine research 35, no. 2 (2010): 51-58.
    27. Saler, Tayyibe, Gulfidan Cakmak, zuhal Aydan Saglam, Esra Ataoglu, Tijen Yesim Erdem, and Mustafa Yenigun. “The assessment of pulmo- nary diffusing capacity in diabetes mellitus with regard to microalbu- minuria.” Internal Medicine 48, no. 22 (2009): 1939-1943.
    28. Balaji, Rajasekar, Meena Ramanathan, Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani, Pajanivel Ranganadin, and Karthik Balachandran. “Effectiveness of adjuvant yoga therapy in diabetic lung: A randomized control trial.” International journal of yoga 12, no. 2 (2019): 96.
    29. Tuttolomondo, Antonino, Carlo Maida, and Antonio Pinto. “Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardio- vascular markers in diabetes.” World journal of orthopedics 6, no. 1 (2015): 62.
    30. Shalan, Naeem, Abdulrahman Al-Bazzaz, Israa Al-Ani, Fadi Najem, and Mohammad Al-Masri. “Effect of Carbon Dioxide Therapy on Diabetic Foot ulcer.” Journal of Diabetes Mellitus5, no. 04 (2015): 284.
    31. Bernardi, Luciano, Daniel Gordin, Marco Bordino, Milla Rosengård-Bärlund, Anna Sandelin, Carol Forsblom, and Per-Henrik Groop. “Oxygen-induced impairment in arterial function is corrected by slow breathing in patients with type 1 diabetes.” Scientific reports 7, no. 1 (2017): 6001.
    32. Hegde, Shreelaxmi V., Prabha Adhikari, N. K. Subbalakshmi, M. Nan- dini, Gayathri M. Rao, and Vivian D’Souza. “Diaphragmatic breathing exercise as a therapeutic intervention for control of oxidative stress
    in type 2 diabetes mellitus.” Complementary therapies in clinical practice 18, no. 3 (2012): 151-153.
    33. Eske, Jamie, Stacey Sampson. “How does oxidative stress affect the body?.” Medical News Today. Published April 2, 2019. www.medical- php (accessed January 8, 2020).
    34. LaFee, Scott. “The Connection Between Oxygen and Diabetes A lack of O2 in fat cells triggers inflammation and insulin obesity.” uS San Diego Health, Newsroom. Published June 5, 2014. tion-between-oxygen-and-diabetes.aspx (accessed July 18, 2019).
    35. Wilson, Ted, Sarah E. Baker, Michelle R. Freeman, Mark R. Gar- brecht, Frances R. Ragsdale, Daniel A. Wilson, and Christopher Malone. “Relaxation breathing improves human glycemic response.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 19, no. 7 (2013): 633-636.
    36. Bernardi, L., M. Rosengård-Bärlund, A. Sandelin, V. P. Mäkinen, C. Forsblom, P-H. Groop, and FinnDiane Study Group. “Short-term oxygen administration restores blunted baroreflex sensitivity in patients with type 1 diabetes.” Diabetologia 54, no. 8 (2011): 2164- 2173.
    37. Bianchi, L., C. Porta, A. Rinaldi, C. Gazzaruso, P. Fratino, P. DeCa- ta, P. Protti, R. Paltro, and L. Bernardi. “Integrated cardiovascular/ respiratory control in type 1 diabetes evidences functional imbalance: Possible role of hypoxia.” International journal of cardiology 244 (2017): 254-259.
    38. Chen, Yu-Fen, Xuan-Yi Huang, Ching-Hui Chien, and Jui-Fen Cheng. “The effectiveness of diaphragmatic breathing relaxation training for reducing anxiety.” Perspectives in psychiatric care 53, no. 4 (2017): 329-336.
    39. zaccaro, Andrea, Andrea Piarulli, Marco Laurino, Erika Garbel-
    la, Danilo Menicucci, Bruno Neri, and Angelo Gemignani. “How breath-control can change your life: a systematic review on psy- cho-physiological correlates of slow breathing.” Frontiers in human neuroscience 12 (2018): 353.
    40. Mitra, Analava. “Diabetes and stress: A review.” Studies on Eth- no-Medicine 2, no. 2 (2008): 131-135.
    41. Wilson, T., K. L. Kelly, and S. E. Baker. “Review: Can yoga breathing exercises improve glycemic response and insulin sensitivity.” A Clini- cal Commentary. J Yoga Phys Ther 7, no. 270 (2017): 2.
    42. Greco, Carla, and Vincenza Spallone. “Obstructive sleep apnoea syn- drome and diabetes. Fortuitous association or interaction?.” Current diabetes reviews 12, no. 2 (2016): 129-155.
    43. Farabi, Sarah S. “Type 1 diabetes and sleep.” Diabetes Spectrum 29, no. 1 (2016): 10-13.
    44. Bernardi, Luciano, Luigi Ricordi, Pierangelo Lazzari, P. Solda, Ales- sandro Calciati, Maria Rosa Ferrari, Ignazio Vandea, Giorgio Finardi, and Pietro Fratino. “Impaired circadian modulation of sympathovagal activity in diabetes. A possible explanation for altered temporal onset of cardiovascular disease.” Circulation 86, no. 5 (1992): 1443-1452.
    45. Azevedo, John L., Julie O. Carey, Walter J. Pories, Patricia G.
    Morris, and G. Lynis Dohm. “Hypoxia stimulates glucose transport in insulin-resistant human skeletal muscle.” Diabetes 44, no. 6 (1995): 695-698.
    46. Serebrovskaya, Tatiana V., Igor S. Nikolsky, Valentyna V. Nikolska, Robert T. Mallet, and Vadim A. Ishchuk. “Intermittent hypoxia mo- bilizes hematopoietic progenitors and augments cellular and humoral elements of innate immunity in adult men.” High altitude medicine & biology 12, no. 3 (2011): 243-252.
    47. Mackenzie, Richard, Neil Maxwell, Paul Castle, Gary Brickley, and Peter Watt. “Acute hypoxia and exercise improve insulin sensitivity (SI2*) in individuals with type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews 27, no. 1 (2011): 94-101.
    48. “Simple, scientifically-based breathing principles for optimal health and well-being.” The Breathing Diabetic. Published 2019. www.the- (accessed January 13, 2020).
    49. Laursen, J. C., C. S. Hansen, M. Bordino, D. Vistisen, E. H. zobel,
    S. A. Winther, P-H. Groop, M. Frimodt-Møller, L. Bernardi, and P. Rossing. “Hyperoxia improves autonomic function in individuals with long-duration type 1 diabetes and macroalbuminuria.” Diabetic Medi- cine (2020).
    50. Tsiouli, Eleni, Vassilis Pavlopoulos, Evangelos C. Alexopoulos, George Chrousos, and Christina Darviri. “Short-term impact of a stress management and health promotion program on perceived stress, parental stress, health locus of control, and cortisol levels in parents of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1: a pilot randomized controlled trial.” Explore 10, no. 2 (2014): 88-98.
    51. Duennwald, Tobias, Hannes Gatterer, Per-Henrik Groop, Martin Burtscher, and Luciano Bernardi. “Effects of a single bout of interval hypoxia on cardiorespiratory control and blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes Care 36, no. 8 (2013): 2183-2189.
    52. Khanum, Asiya, Shaier Khan, Samina Kausar, Farhan Mukhtar, and Saima Kausar. “Effects of Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercises on Blood Sugar Levels in Working Class Females with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.” International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sci- ences 8, no. 1 (2019): 34-42.
    53. Grandner, Michael A., Azizi Seixas, Safal Shetty, and Sundeep Shenoy. “Sleep duration and diabetes risk: population trends and po- tential mechanisms.” Current diabetes reports 16, no. 11 (2016): 106.
    54. George, Chelsey, Alan M. Ducatman, and Baqiyyah N. Conway. “Increased risk of respiratory diseases in adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes.” Diabetes research and clinical practice 142 (2018): 46-55.
    55. Morse, Sarah. “The Link Between Diabetes and Respiratory Condi- tions.” MedPage Today. Published September 25, 2018. link-between-diabetes-and-respiratory-conditions/2215 (accessed January 13, 2020).
    56. Graves, Dana T., and Rayyan A. Kayal. “Diabetic complications and dysregulated innate immunity.” Frontiers in bioscience: a journal and virtual library 13 (2008): 1227.
    57. Wikipedia contributors, “Systemic inflammation,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, temic_inflammation&oldid=961310306 (accessed July 20, 2020).
    58. Fabbri, L. M., Fabrizio Luppi, Bianca Beghé, and K. F. Rabe. “Com- plex chronic comorbidities of COPD.” European Respiratory Journal 31, no. 1 (2008): 204-212.
    59. Giannini, Cosimo, Angelika Mohn, and Francesco Chiarelli. “Growth abnormalities in children with type 1 diabetes, juvenile chronic arthri- tis, and asthma.” International journal of endocrinology 2014 (2014).
    60. Suresh, Vaikkakara, A. Reddy, Alladi Mohan, Gadekal Rajgopal, Potham Satish, C. Harinarayan, and A. Sachan. “High prevalence of spirometric abnormalities in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus.” Pediatr Endocrinol Diabetes Metab 17, no. 2 (2011): 71-75.
    61. Van Gent, R., H. J. L. Brackel, M. De Vroede, and C. K. Van Der Ent. “Lung function abnormalities in children with type 1 diabetes.” Respiratory medicine 96, no. 12 (2002): 976-978.
    62. Smew, Awad I., Cecilia Lundholm, Lars Sävendahl, Paul Lichtenstein, and Catarina Almqvist. “Familial Coaggregation of Asthma and
    Type 1 Diabetes in Children.” JAMA network open 3, no. 3 (2020): e200834-e200834.
    63. Hlavinka, Elizabeth. “Asthma and T1D in Kids: It’s Complicated.” Medpage Today. Published March 12, 2020. www.medpagetoday. com/pediatrics/asthma/85385 (accessed, July 20, 2020). Hlavinka, Elizabeth. “Asthma and T1D in Kids: It’s Complicated.” Medpage To- day. Published March 12, 2020. asthma/85385 (accessed, July 20, 2020).
    64. Watanabe, K., S. Senju, H. Toyoshima, and M. Yoshida. “Thickness of the basement membrane of bronchial epithelial cells in lung diseases as determined by transbronchial biopsy.” Respiratory medicine 91, no. 7 (1997): 406-410.
    65. “Simple Steps to Preventing Diabetes” Harvard School of Public Health. www.hsph. diabetes-prevention/preventing-dia-betes-full-story/#activity (ac- cessed January 13, 2020).
    66. Meerman, Ruben, and Andrew J. Brown. “When somebody loses weight, where does the fat go?.” Bmj 349 (2014): g7257.
    67. MacDonald, Fiona. “This Is Where Body Fat Actually Goes When
    You Lose Weight.” Science Alert. Published February 17, 2018. www. (accessed July 20, 2020).
    68. Mansor, Latt S., Keshavi Mehta, Dunja Aksentijevic, Carolyn A. Carr, Trine Lund, Mark A. Cole, Lydia Le Page et al. “Increased oxidative metabolism following hypoxia in the type 2 diabetic heart, despite normal hypoxia signalling and metabolic adaptation.” The Journal of physiology 594, no. 2 (2016): 307-320.
    69. Liu, Xiaoli, Diqun Xu, James R. Hall, Sarah Ross, Shande Chen, Howe Liu, Robert T. Mallet, and Xiangrong Shi. “Enhanced cerebral perfu- sion during brief exposures to cyclic intermittent hypoxemia.” Journal of Applied Physiology 123, no. 6 (2017): 1689-1697.
    70. “Study Reveals Brain’s Finely Tuned System of Energy Supply.” University of Rochester Medical Center. Published August 8, 2016. finely-tuned-system-of-energy-supply.aspx (accessed January 12, 2020).
    71. “Principle 3: Hold Your Breath.” The Breathing www. thebreathingdiabetic. com/principle-3/ (accessed, December 11, 2020).
    72. Navarrete-Opazo, Angela, and Gordon S. Mitchell. “Therapeutic po- tential of intermittent hypoxia: a matter of dose.” American Journal of Physiology-Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology 307, no. 10 (2014): R1181-R1197.
    73. “Therapeutic potential of intermittent hypoxia: a matter of dose Navarrete-Opazo and Mitchell (2014).” The Breathing (accessed, December 11, 2020).
    74. Horowitz, Michael, Yu-Chung Su, Christopher K. Rayner, and Karen L. Jones. “Gastroparesis: prevalence, clinical significance and treat- ment.” Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 15, no. 12 (2001): 805-813.
    75. Fletcher, Jenna. “What to know about diabetic gastroparesis?.” Med- ical News Today. Published April 12, 2019. www.medicalnewstoday. com/articles/324964.php (accessed January 13, 2020).
    76. Yoshimoto, Misa, Mitsuko Sasaki, Nobuo Naraki, Motohiko Mohri, and Kenju Miki. “Regulation of gastric motility at simulated high altitude in conscious rats.” Journal of Applied Physiology 97, no. 2 (2004): 599-604.
    77. Gidron, Yori, Reginald Deschepper, Marijke De Couck, Julian Thayer, and Brigitte Velkeniers. “The vagus nerve can predict and possibly modulate non-communicable chronic diseases: introducing a neuro- immunological paradigm to public health.” Journal of clinical medicine 7, no. 10 (2018): 371.
    78. Nonogaki, K. “New insights into sympathetic regulation of glucose
    and fat metabolism.”Diabetologia 43, no. 5 (2000): 533-549.
    79. Kuijpers, Myrthe, Jacqueline Limberg, Simmi Dube, Kathryn Farni,
    Ananda Basu, Timothy Curry, Rita Basu, and Michael Joyner. “Effect of Hypoxia on Baroreflex Control of Blood Pressure During Hypo- glycemia in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus.” The FASEB Journal 29, no. 1_supplement (2015): 806-3.
    80. Khanum, Asiya, Shaier Khan, Samina Kausar, Farhan Mukhtar, and Saima Kausar. “Effects of Diaphragmatic Breathing Exercises on Blood Sugar Levels in Working Class Females with Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus.” International Journal of Medical Research & Health Sci- ences 8, no. 1 (2019): 34-42.
    1. Epilepsy and Seizures.” Columbia University Department of Neu- rology. php?id=33912 (accessed March 24, 2020).
    2. World Health Organization. “Epilepsy.” fact sheet. Published June 20, 2019. tail/epilepsy (accessed August 2, 2020).
    3. “Epilepsy.” World Health Organization. Published June 20, 2019. (accessed March 24, 2020).
    4. Fried, Robert, Mary C. Fox, and Richard M. Carlton. “Effect of diaphragmatic respiration with end-tidal CO2 biofeedback on respi- ration, EEG, and seizure frequency in idiopathic epilepsy.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1990).
    5. Goldenberg, Marvin M. “Overview of drugs used for epilepsy and seizures: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.” Pharmacy and Thera- peutics 35, no. 7 (2010): 392.
    6. Columbia university Department of Neurology. “Epilepsy and Sei- zures.” Columbia university Department of Neurology. www.columbi- epilepsy-and-seizures (accessed August 29, 2020).
    7. Stafstrom, Carl E., and Lionel Carmant. “Seizures and epilepsy: an overview for neuroscientists.” Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine 5, no. 6 (2015): a022426.
    8. Kerr, Shana. “Biology 1520, Neurons, Learning Objectives.” Georgia Tech Biological Sciences, updated March 10, 2018.
    9. nals/neurons/ (accessed August 29, 2020).
    10. Rakhimov, Artour, posted to the Epilepsy Foundation Website, Landover, USA, sources-helpful-links/seizure-threshold-con-trolled-breathing-pat- tern-and (web page no longer available).
    11. Scharfman, Helen E. “The neurobiology of epilepsy.” Current neurol- ogy and neuroscience reports 7, no. 4 (2007): 348-354.
    12. Leeman-Markowski, Beth A., and Steven C. Schachter. “Cognitive and behavioral interventions in epilepsy.” Current neurology and neuroscience reports 17, no. 5 (2017): 42.
    13. Devinsky, Orrin. “Effects of seizures on autonomic and cardiovascular function.” Epilepsy currents 4, no. 2 (2004): 43-46.
    14. Davison, Danielle L., Megan Terek, and Lakhmir S. Chawla. “Neuro- genic pulmonary edema.” Critical care 16, no. 2 (2012): 212.
    15. Devinsky, Orrin. “Effects of seizures on autonomic and cardiovascular function.” Epilepsy currents 4, no. 2 (2004): 43-46.
    16. Wahab, Abdul. “Difficulties in treatment and management of epilepsy and challenges in new drug development.” Pharmaceuticals 3, no. 7 (2010): 2090-2110.
    17. “3 Ways Epilepsy Symptoms Can Affect Your Body.” Seton. net. Published June 28, 2017. care/2017/06/28/3-ways-epilepsy-symptoms-can-affect-body/ (accessed April 1, 2020).
    18. Azar, Nabil J., Tania F. Tayah, Lily Wang, Yanna Song, and Bassel W. Abou-Khalil. “Postictal breathing pattern distinguishes epileptic from nonepileptic convulsive seizures.” Epilepsia 49, no. 1 (2008): 132- 137.
    19. Rakhimov, Artour. “CO2: Key Nutrient for Mental Health Sedative and Tranquilizer.”, updated, August 2, 2019. (accessed, March 25, 2020).
    20. Rakhimov, Artour. “Threshold for a Seizure Is Controlled by Brain CO2 and O2.”, updated, August 13, 2020. (accessed August 29, 2020).
    21. Salvati, Kathryn A., and Mark P. Beenhakker. “Out of thin air: Hyperventilation-triggered seizures.” Brain research 1703 (2019): 41-52.
    22. Rakhimov, Artour. “What Causes Seizures? Low Brain CO2 and Ox- ygen Levels and Epilepsy.”, updated, August 13, 2020. https://www.normalbreathing. com/seizures-cause/ (accessed August 29, 2020).
    23. Lennox, W. G. “The effect on epileptic seizures of varying the compo- sition of the respired air.” J Clin Invest 6 (1928): 23-24. Mitchell, Walter G., and Robert C. Grubbs. “Inhibition of audiogenic seizures by carbon dioxide.” Science 123, no. 3189 (1956): 223-224.
    24. Huttunen, Juha, H. Tolvanen, E. Heinonen, Juha Voipio, Heidi Wikström, R. J. Ilmoniemi, Riitta Hari, and Kai Kaila. “Effects of voluntary hyperventilation on cortical sensory responses Electroen- cephalographic and magnetoencephalographic studies.” Experimental brain research 125, no. 3 (1999): 248-254.
    25. Dulla, Chris G., Peter Dobelis, Tim Pearson, Bruno G. Frenguelli, Kevin J. Staley, and Susan A. Masino. “Adenosine and ATP link PCO2 to cortical excitability via pH.” Neuron 48, no. 6 (2005): 1011-1023.
    26. Abdelmalik, Peter A., Patrick Shannon, Adelaide Yiu, Philip Liang, Yana Adamchik, Michael Weisspapir, Marina Samoilova, W. McIntyre Burnham, and Peter L. Carlen. “Hypoglycemic seizures during tran- sient hypoglycemia exacerbate hippocampal dysfunction.” Neurobi- ology of disease 26, no. 3 (2007): 646-660.
    27. Läderach, Hektor, and Werner Straub. “Effects of voluntary hy- perventilation on glucose, free fatty acids and several glucostatic hormones.” Swiss medical weekly 131, no. 0102 (2001).
    28. Schuchmann, Sebastian, Dietmar Schmitz, Claudio Rivera, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Benedikt Salmen, Ken Mackie, Sampsa T. Sipilä, Juha Voipio, and Kai Kaila. “Experimental febrile seizures are precipitated by a hyperthermia-induced respiratory alkalosis.” Nature medicine 12, no. 7 (2006): 817-823.
    29. Herbertson Gemma, Justin Liu, and Claire McDonnell Liu. “The Effect of Exchange Breathing Method First Aid on Status Epilepticus Seizures.” Front. Neurol. Conference Abstract: International Sympo- sium on Clinical Neuroscience (2019).
    30. Fried, Robert, Mary C. Fox, and Richard M. Carlton. “Effect of diaphragmatic respiration with end-tidal CO2 biofeedback on respi- ration, EEG, and seizure frequency in idiopathic epilepsy.” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences (1990).
    31. Lennox, W. G., F. A. Gibbs, and E. I. Gibbs. “The relationship in man of cerebral activity to blood flow and to blood constituents.” Journal of neurology and psychiatry 1, no. 3 (1938): 211.
    32. Wikipedia contributors, “Hyperpnea,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclo- pedia, https:// did=884678741 (accessed March 29, 2020).
    33. Fried, Robert. Breathe Well, be Well: A Program to Relieve Stress, Anxiety, Hypertension, Migraine, and Other Disorders for Better Health. John Wiley, 1999.
    34. Penfield, W., and H. Jasper. “Epilepsy and the Functional Anatomy ofthe Brain.” London: Churchill (1954): 468-9.
    35. Lum, L. C. “Hyperventilation: the tip and the iceberg.” J Psychosom Res 19, no. 5-6 (1975): 375-383.
    37. Mattson, R. H., G. R. Heninger, B. B. Gallagher, and G. H. Glaser.
    “Psychophysiologic precipitants of seizures in epileptics.” Neurology
    20, no. 4 (1970): 407.
    38. Hellmis, Eva. “Sexual problems in males with epilepsy—An interdisci-
    plinary challenge!.”Seizure 17, no. 2 (2008): 136-140.
    39. Stalmatski, Alexander, and Brigid McConville. Freedom from asthma:
    Buteyko’s revolutionary treatment. Kyle Cathie, 1997.
    40. Horyd, W., J. Gryziak, K. Niedzielska, and J. J. zieliński. “Effect
    of physical exertion on seizure discharges in the EEG of epilepsy patients.” Neurologia i neurochirurgia polska 15, no. 5-6 (1981): 545- 552.
    41. Bergsholm, P., L. Gran, and H. Bleie. “Seizure duration in unilater- al electroconvulsive therapy: the effect of hypocapnia induced by hyperventilation and the effect of ventilation with oxygen.” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 69, no. 2 (1984): 121-128.
    42. Sawayama, Enami, Megumi Takahashi, Aya Inoue, Keisuke Nakaji- ma, Akiko Kano, Toru Sawayama, Toshiyuki Okutomi, and Hitoshi Miyaoka. “Moderate hyperventilation prolongs electroencephalogram seizure duration of the first electroconvulsive therapy.” The journal of ECT 24, no. 3 (2008): 195-198.
    43. Steinhoff, Bernhard J., Stefan RG Stodieck, zdravko zivcec, Ralph Schreiner, Christian von Maffei, Helmut Plendl, and Walter Paulus. “Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the brain in patients with mesiotemporal epileptic foci.” Clinical Electroencephalography 24, no. 1 (1993): 1-5.
    44. Wirrell, Elaine C., Peter R. Camfield, Kevin E. Gordon, Carol S. Camfield, Joseph M. Dooley, and Brian D. Hanna. “Will a critical lev- el of hyperventilation-induced hypocapnia always induce an absence seizure?.” Epilepsia 37, no. 5 (1996): 459-462.
    45. Silva, W., B. Giagante, R. Saizar, L. D’ Alessio, S. Oddo, D. Consalvo, P. Saidon, and S. Kochen. “Clinical features and prognosis of nonep- ileptic seizures in a developing country.” Epilepsia 42, no. 3 (2001): 398-401.
    46. Yang, z. X., X. Y. Liu, Jiong Qin, Y. H. zhang, Y. Wu, and Y. W. Jiang. “Clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of epilepsy with myoclonic absences.” Zhonghua er ke za zhi= Chinese journal of pediatrics 47, no. 11 (2009): 862-866.
    47. Arain, Amir M., Patrick G. Arbogast, and Bassel W. Abou-Khalil. “utility of daily supervised hyperventilation during long-term vid- eo-EEG monitoring.” Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 26, no. 1 (2009): 17-20.
    48. Jonas, Jacques, Jean-Pierre Vignal, Cédric Baumann, Jean-François Anxionnat, Mirela Muresan, Hervé Vespignani, and Louis Maillard. “Effect of hyperventilation on seizure activation: potentiation by antiepileptic drug tapering.” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry 82, no. 8 (2011): 928-930.
    49. Ma, Xiuwei, Yuehua zhang, zhixian Yang, Xiaoyan Liu, Huihui Sun, Jiong Qin, Xiru Wu, and Jianmin Liang. “Childhood absence epilepsy: Elctroclinical features and diagnostic criteria.” Brain and Develop- ment 33, no. 2 (2011): 114-119.
    50. John Hopkins Medicine. “Absence Seizures.” absence-seizures (accessed August 29, 2020)
    51. Posner, Ewa. “Absence seizures in children.” BMJ clinical evidence 2013 (2013).
    52. Miller, John W. “Stopping Seizures with Carbon Dioxide: Carbon Dioxide.” Epilepsy currents 11, no. 4 (2011): 114-115.
    53. News Staff. “A Good use For Carbon Dioxide – Epilepsy.” Science 2.0. Published June 5, 2007. for_carbon_dioxide_epilepsy (accessed August 3, 2020).
    54. Tolner, Else A., Daryl W. Hochman, Pekka Hassinen, Jakub Otáhal, Eija Gaily, Michael M. Haglund, Hana Kubová, Sebastian Schuch- mann, Sampsa Vanhatalo, and Kai Kaila. “Five% CO2 is a potent, fast-acting inhalation anticonvulsant.” Epilepsia 52, no. 1 (2011): 104- 114.
    55. Yang, Xiao-Fan, Xiu-Yu Shi, Jun Ju, Wei-Na zhang, Yu-Jie Liu, Xiao- Yan Li, and Li-Ping zou. “5% CO2 inhalation suppresses hyperventila- tion-induced absence seizures in children.” Epilepsy research 108, no. 2 (2014): 345-348.
    56. Salvati, Kathryn A., and Mark P. Beenhakker. “Out of thin air: Hyperventilation-triggered seizures.” Brain research 1703 (2019): 41-52.
    57. Brooks-Kayal, Amy R., Kevin G. Bath, Anne T. Berg, Aristea S. Galanopoulou, Gregory L. Holmes, Frances E. Jensen, Andres M. Kanner et al. “Issues related to symptomatic and disease-modifying treatments affecting cognitive and neuropsychiatric comorbidities of epilepsy.” Epilepsia 54 (2013): 44-60.
    58. Cornejo, Brandon J., Michael H. Mesches, Steven Coultrap, Michael D. Browning, and Timothy A. Benke. “A single episode of neonatal seizures permanently alters glutamatergic synapses.” Annals of Neu- rology: Official Journal of the American Neurological Association and the Child Neurology Society 61, no. 5 (2007): 411-426.
    59. Kanner, Andres M. “The treatment of depressive disorders in epilep- sy: what all neurologists should know.” Epilepsia 54 (2013): 3-12.
    60. Strine, Tara W., Rosemarie Kobau, Daniel P. Chapman, David J.
    Thurman, Patricia Price, and Lina S. Balluz. “Psychological distress, comorbidities, and health behaviors among uS adults with seizures: results from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey.” Epilepsia 46, no. 7 (2005): 1133-1139.
    61. Surges, Rainer, and Josemir W. Sander. “Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy: mechanisms, prevalence, and prevention.” Current opinion in neurology 25, no. 2 (2012): 201-207.
    62. Beerhorst, Kim, Sylvie JM van der Kruijs, Pauline Verschuure, IY Francis Tan, and Albert P. Aldenkamp. “Bone disease during chronic antiepileptic drug therapy: general versus specific risk factors.” Jour- nal of the neurological sciences 331, no. 1-2 (2013): 19-25.
    63. Chiron, Catherine. “SPECT (single photon emission computed to- mography) in pediatrics.” In Handbook of clinical neurology, vol. 111, pp. 759-765. Elsevier, 2013.
    64. Leal-Campanario, Rocio, Luis Alarcon-Martinez, Hector Rieiro, Su- sana Martinez-Conde, Tugba Alarcon-Martinez, Xiuli zhao, Jonathan LaMee et al. “Abnormal capillary vasodynamics contribute to ictal neurodegeneration in epilepsy.” Scientific reports 7 (2017): 43276.
    65. Gersten, Alexander, Jacqueline Perle, Amir Raz, and Robert Fried. “Simple exercises that significantly increase cerebral blood flow and cerebral Oxygenation.” arXiv preprint arXiv:1103.5494 (2011).
    66. Singh, u. P. “Evidence-Based Role of Hypercapnia and Exhalation Phase in Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Insights into Hypercapnic Yoga Breathing Exercises.” J Yoga Phys Ther 7, no. 276 (2017): 2.
    67. Hallett, Sasha, and John V. Ashurst. “Physiology, Tidal Volume.” In StatPearls [Internet].
    StatPearls Publishing, 2019.
    68. Gersten, Alexander, Dov Heimer, and Amir Raz. “Oxygenation and
    Blood Volume Periodic Waveforms in the Brain.” arXiv preprint arX-
    iv:1103.5493 (2011).
    69. Gersten, Alexander, Jacqueline Perle, Dov Heimer, Amir Raz, and
    Robert Fried. “Probing Brain Oxygenation Wave-forms with Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS).” arXiv preprint arXiv:1612.08743 (2016).
    70. Haba-Rubio, José, and Andrea O. Rossetti. “Epilepsy and Sleep Disordered Breathing.” Epileptologie (2012).
    71. Taplinger, David. “Relationship Between Sleep Apnea and Seizures.” Epilepsy Foundation. Published March 10, 2018. article/2018/3/relationship-between-sleep-apnea-and-seizures (ac- cessed March 28, 2020).
    72. Kaleyias, Joseph, Marcos Cruz, Jatinder S. Goraya, Ignacio Valencia, Divya S. Khurana, Agustin Legido, and Sanjeev V. Kothare. “Spec- trum of polysomnographic abnormalities in children with epilepsy.” Pediatric neurology 39, no. 3 (2008): 170-176.
    73. May, Brandon. “Risk Factors for Sleep-Disordered Breathing in
    Epilepsy, Psychogenic Nonepileptic Seizures Identified.” Neurology Advisor. Published February 13, 2019. topics/epilepsy/risk-factors-for-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-epi- lepsy-psychogenic-nonepileptic-seizures-identified/ (accessed March 28, 2020).
    74. Sivathamboo, Shobi, Sarah Farrand, zhibin Chen, Elise J. White, An- drew Andreas Pattichis, Callum Hollis, John Carino et al. “Sleep-dis- ordered breathing among patients admitted for inpatient video-EEG monitoring.” Neurology 92, no. 3 (2019): e194-e204.
    75. Somboon, Thapanee, Madeleine M. Grigg-Damberger, and Nancy Foldvary-Schaefer. “Epilepsy and sleep-related breathing disturbanc- es.” Chest 156, no. 1 (2019): 172-181.
    76. Deane, S., and A. Thomson. “Obesity and the pulmonologist.” Ar- chives of disease in childhood 91, no. 2 (2006): 188-191.
    77. Sklerov, Miriam, Eran Dayan, and Nina Browner. “Functional neuro- imaging of the central autonomic network: recent developments and clinical implications.” Clinical Autonomic Research (2018): 1-12.
    78. Billakota, Santoshi, Nicole Odom, Andrew J. Westwood, Eric Hanna, Alison M. Pack, and Lisa M. Bateman. “Sleep-disordered breathing, neuroendocrine function, and clinical SuDEP risk in patients with epilepsy.” Epilepsy & Behavior 87 (2018): 78-82.
    79. Vitelli, Ottavio, Silvia Miano, Alessandra Tabarrini, Anna Rita Maz- zotta, Maria Chiara Supino, Martina Forlani, and Maria Pia Villa. “Ep- ilepsy and sleep-disordered breathing as false friends: a case report.” Journal of child neurology 29, no. 10 (2014): NP114-NP117.
    80. Maganti, Rama, Nancy Hausman, Monica Koehn, Evan Sandok, Ingrid Glurich, and Bickol N. Mukesh. “Excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep complaints among children with epilepsy.” Epilepsy & Be- havior 8, no. 1 (2006): 272-277.
    81. Yuen, Alan WC, and Josemir W. Sander. “Can natural ways to stim- ulate the vagus nerve improve seizure control?.” Epilepsy & Behavior 67 (2017): 105-110.
    82. Rodriguez, Tori. “Addressing the Association Between Stress and Seizure Frequency.” Neurology Advisor. Published April 14, 2015. ation-between-stress-and-seizure-frequency/ (accessed August 2, 2020).
    83. Khurana, Divya S., Marko Reumann, Elizabeth F. Hobdell, Samu-
    el Neff, Ignacio Valencia, Agustin Legido, and Sanjeev V. Kothare. “Vagus nerve stimulation in children with refractory epilepsy: unusual complications and relationship to sleep-disordered breathing.” Child’s Nervous System 23, no. 11 (2007): 1309-1312.
    84. Perez-Carbonell, Laura, Sean Higgins, Michalis Koutroumanidis, and
    Guy Leschziner. “Sleep-disordered breathing as a consequence of vagus nerve stimulation.” Revista de neurologia 70, no. 5 (2020): 179-182.
    85. Liu, Hongyun, zhao Yang, Lei Huang, Wei Qu, Hongwei Hao, and Luming Li. “Heartrate variability indices as predictors of the response to vagus nerve stimulation in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy.” Epilepsia 58, no. 6 (2017): 1015-1022.
    86. Hirfanoglu, Tugba, Ayse Serdaroglu, Ilker Cetin, Gokhan Kurt, Irem Y. Capraz, Filiz Ekici, Ebru Arhan, and Erhan Bilir. “Effects of vagus nerve stimulation on heart rate variability in children with epilepsy.” Epilepsy & Behavior 81 (2018): 33-40.
    87. Rodriguez, Tori. “Epilepsy and Migraine: A Common Ground?.” Neurology Advisor. Published October 5, 2015. www.neurologyadvi- (accessed August 2, 2020).
    88. Gowers, William Richard. The Border-land of Epilepsy: Faints, Vagal Attacks, Vertigo, Migraine, Sleep Symptons, and Their Treatment. P. Blakiston’s son & Company, 1907.
    89. Beh, Shin C., Shamin Masrour, Stacy V. Smith, and Deborah I. Fried- man. “The spectrum of vestibular migraine: clinical features, triggers, and examination findings.” Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain 59, no. 5 (2019): 727-740.
    90. Huxley, Aldous. “The Art of Seeing (1942).” Berkeley, Creative Art Book Company (1982).
    91. Chang, Jolan. The Tao of love and sex: The ancient Chinese way to ecstasy. Penguin Books, 1977.
    92. Cheung, C. M. G., O. M. Durrani, and G. R. Kirkby. “Sudden visual loss in asthma.” Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 95, no. 7 (2002): 359-359.
    93. Fried, Robert, Sherry R. Rubin, Richard M. Carlton, and Mary C. Fox. “Behavioral control of intractable idiopathic seizures: I. Self reg- ulation of end tidal carbon dioxide.” Psychosomatic Medicine (1984).
    94. Fried, R. “The use of end-tidal carbon-dioxide biofeedback in the treatment of idiopathic epilepsy.” In Biofeedback and Self-Regula- tion, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 111-111. 233 Spring St., New York, NY 10013: Plenum Publ Corp, 1984.
    95. Servit, z., M. Krištof, and A. Strejčková. “Activating effect of nasal and oral hyperventilation on epileptic electrographic phenomena: re- flex mechanisms of nasal origin.” Epilepsia 22, no. 3 (1981): 321-329.
    96. Servit, z., M. Krištof, and M. Kolinova. “Activation of epileptic elec- trographic phenomena in the human EEG by nasal air flow.” Physio- logia Bohemoslovaca (1977).
    97. Kristof, M., z. Servit, and K. Manas. “Activating effect of nasal air
    flow on epileptic electrographic abnormalities in the human EEG. Evidence for the reflect origin of the phenomenon.” Physiologia Bohemoslovaca 30, no. 1 (1981): 73-77.
    98. Price, Annie, and Ronald Eccles. “Nasal airflow and brain activity: is there a link?.” The Journal of laryngology and otology 130, no. 9 (2016): 794.
    99. Bruno-Golden, Barbara, and Gregory L. Holmes. “Hyperventila- tion-induced seizures in mentally impaired children.” Seizure-Euro- pean Journal of Epilepsy 2, no. 3 (1993): 229-233.
    100. Yuen, Alan WC, and Josemir W. Sander. “Can slow breathing exer- cises improve seizure control in people with refractory epilepsy? A hypothesis.” Epilepsy & Behavior 18, no. 4 (2010): 331-334.
    101. Graham, Tess. “Relief from Snoring and Sleep Apnoea: A Step-by- step Guide to Restful Sleep and Better Health Through Changing the Way You Breathe.” Penguin Viking, 2012.
    102. Rakhimov, Artour. “Normal breathing: the key to vital health.” Las Vegas, NV: CreateSpace (2014).
    1. “Phenotypes Of Sleep Apnea and Four Key Traits.” YouTube video, 2:10, Buteyko Clinic International, October 8, 2018. com/watch?v=GBMX_auCo2w
    2. Eckert, Danny J., David P. White, Amy S. Jordan, Atul Malhotra, and Andrew Wellman. “Defining phenotypic causes of obstructive sleep apnea. Identification of novel therapeutic targets.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 188, no. 8 (2013): 996- 1004.
    3. Masse, J. F. “The Buteyko technique: fake news or no news.” Journal of Dental Sleep Medicine 5, no. 3 (2018): 53-54.
    4. “upper Airway Collapsibility Pcrit & Breathing Re-Education.” YouTube video, 10:30, Buteyko Clinic International, October 8, 2018. watch?v=nNBnunkuoJA&t=313s
    5. Osman, Amal M., Sophie G. Carter, Jayne C. Carberry, and Danny J. Eckert. “Obstructive sleep apnea: current perspectives.” Nature and science of sleep 10 (2018): 21.
    6. Trevisan, Maria Elaine, Jalusa Boufleur, Juliana Corrêa Soares, Carlos Jesus Pereira Haygert, Lilian Gerdi Kittel Ries, and Eliane Castilhos Rodrigues Corrêa. “Diaphragmatic amplitude and accessory inspiratory muscle activity in nasal and mouth-breathing adults: a cross-sectional study.” Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 25, no. 3 (2015): 463-468.
    7. Deacon, Naomi L., Rachel Jen, Yanru Li, and Atul Malhotra. “Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Prospects for personalized combined modality therapy.” Annals of the American Thoracic Society 13, no. 1 (2016): 101-108.
    8. Michels, Daniel de Sousa, Amanda da Mota Silveira Rodrigues, Márcio Nakanishi, André Luiz Lopes Sampaio, and Alessandra Ramos Venosa. “Nasal involvement in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.” International journal of otolaryngology 2014 (2014).
    9. Wang, Qingzhu, Peizeng Jia, Nina K. Anderson, Lin Wang, and Jiuxiang Lin. “Changes of pharyngeal airway size and hyoid bone position following orthodontic treatment of Class I bimaxillary protrusion.” The Angle orthodontist 82, no. 1 (2011): 115-121.
    10. Hang, William M., and Michael Gelb. “Airway Centric® TMJ philosophy/Airway Centric® orthodontics ushers in the post-retrac- tion world of orthodontics.” CRANIO® 35, no. 2 (2017): 68-78.
    11. Hsu YB, Lan MY, Huang YC, Kao MC, Lan MC. Association Between Breathing Route, Oxygen Desaturation, and upper Airway Morphol- ogy. Laryngoscope. 2020 May 30. doi: 10.1002/lary.28774.
    12. Swift, A. C., I. T. Campbell, and TessaM Mckown. “Oronasal obstruc- tion, lung volumes, and arterial oxygenation.” The Lancet 331, no.
    8577 (1988): 73-75.
    13. Bartley, James, and Conroy Wong. “Nasal Pulmonary Interactions.”
    In Nasal Physiology and Pathophysiology of Nasal Disorders, pp.
    559-566. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
    14. “Loop Gain in Sleep Apnea – What Is Loop Gain? Explained.” YouTube
    video, 25:33, Buteyko Clinic International, October 8, 2018. www. watch?v=y9LcHm-bqVc&t=142s
    15. Jordan, Amy S., David G. McSharry, and Atul Malhotra. “Adult ob-
    structive sleep apnoea.” The Lancet 383, no. 9918 (2014): 736-747.
    16. Tanaka, Yukio, Tsuguo, Morikawa, and Yoshiyuki Honda. “An assess- ment of nasal functions in control of breathing.” Journal of Applied
    Physiology 65, no. 4 (1988): 1520-1524.
    17. Messineo, Ludovico, Luigi Taranto-Montemurro, Ali Azarbarzin, Me-
    lania D. Oliveira Marques, Nicole Calianese, David P. White, Andrew Wellman, and Scott A. Sands. “Breath-holding as a means to estimate the loop gain contribution to obstructive sleep apnoea.” The Journal of physiology 596, no. 17 (2018): 4043-4056.
    18. Bernardi, Luciano, Alessandra Gabutti, Cesare Porta, and Lucia Spicuzza. “Slow breathing reduces chemoreflex response to hypoxia and hypercapnia, and increases baroreflex sensitivity.” Journal of hypertension 19, no. 12 (2001): 2221-2229.
    19. “Arousal Threshold In Sleep Apnea.” YouTube video, 2:33, Buteyko Clinic International, October 8, 2018. watch?v=MPdf8Cn1RHA
    20. Wikipedia contributors, “Locus coeruleus,” Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, https:// ruleus&oldid=951712619 (accessed August 14, 2020).
    21. Yackle et al. Breathing control center neurons that promote arousal in mice. Science. Volume 355, Issue 6332. March 31, 2017.
    22. Olsen, Kerry D., Eugene B. Kern, and Philip R. Westbrook. “Sleep and breathing disturbance secondary to nasal obstruction.” Otolaryn- gology Head and Neck Surgery 89, no. 5 (1981): 804-810.
    23. zwillich, Clifford W., Cheryl Pickett, Fredrick N. Hanson, and John V. Weil. “Disturbed sleep and prolonged apnea during nasal obstruction in normal men.” American Review of Respiratory Disease 124, no. 2 (1981): 158-160.
    24. Butler, Matthew P., Jeffery T. Emch, Michael Rueschman, Scott A. Sands, Steven A. Shea, Andrew Wellman, and Susan Redline. “Apnea hypopnea event duration predicts mortality in men and women in the Sleep Heart Health Study.” American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine 199, no. 7 (2019): 903-912.
    25. Gerritsen, Roderik JS, and Guido PH Band. “Breath of life: The respiratory vagal stimulation model of contemplative activity.”
    Frontiers in human neuroscience 12 (2018): 397.
    26. Narkiewicz, Krzysztof, Philippe Van De Borne, Nicola Montano,
    Dagmara Hering, Tomas Kara, and Virend K. Somers. “Sympathetic neural outflow and chemoreflex sensitivity are related to spontaneous breathing rate in normal men.” Hypertension 47, no. 1 (2006): 51-55.
    27. Watson, Christopher J., Helen A. Baghdoyan, and Ralph Lydic. “Neuropharmacology of sleep and wakefulness.” Sleep medicine clinics 5, no. 4 (2010): 513-528.
    28. “Breathing and Sleep Apnea Breathing Pattern Disorders & Normalizing Breathing Volume.” YouTube video, 15:41, Buteyko Clinic International, October 8, 2018.
    29. McNicholas, W. T. “The nose and OSA: variable nasal obstruction may be more important in pathophysiology than fixed obstruction.” (2008): 3-8.
    30. Courtney, Rosalba, Kenneth Mark Greenwood, and Marc Cohen. “Relationships between measures of dysfunctional breathing in a population with concerns about their breathing.” Journal of bodywork and movement therapies 15, no. 1 (2011): 24-34.
    31. Courtney, Rosalba, and Marc Cohen. “Investigating the claims of Konstantin Buteyko, MD, Ph. D.: the relationship of breath holding time to end tidal CO2 and other proposed measures of dysfunctional breathing.” The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 14, no. 2 (2008): 115-123.
    1. Watson, Alan. “Breathing in singing.” In The Oxford Handbook of Singing. 2014.
    2. Sundberg, Johan, Rolf Leanderson, and Curt von Euler. “Voice source effects of diaphragmatic activity in singing.” Journal of phonetics 14, no. 3-4 (1986): 351-357.
    3. Watson, Alan HD, Caitlin Williams, and Buddug V. James. “Activity patterns in latissimus dorsi and sternocleidomastoid in classical sing- ers.” Journal of voice 26, no. 3 (2012): e95-e105.
    4. Davids, Julia, and Stephen LaTour. Vocal technique: A guide for con- ductors, teachers, and singers. Waveland Press, 2012.
    5. Cleveland, Thomas F. “Comparison of breath managment strategies in classical and nonclassical singers: part 3.” Journal of Singing 54, no. 1 (1998): 47-48.
    6. Salomoni, Sauro, Wolbert Van Den Hoorn, and Paul Hodges. “Breathing and singing: objective characterization of breathing
    patterns in classical singers.” PloS One 11, no. 5 (2016): e0155084.
    7. Collyer, Sally. “Breathing in classical singing: Linking science and
    teaching.” In Proceedings of the International Symposium on
    Performance Science, pp. 153-164. 2009.
    8. Lokenbaha, Mara, Asja Eglite, and Dzintra Vavere. “Speech Disorders
    and Modern Breathing Techniques.” International Journal of
    Rehabilitation Research 32 (2009): S113-S114.
    9. Conelea, Christine A., Kevin A. Rice, and Douglas W. Woods.
    “Regulated breathing as a treatment for stuttering: A review of the empirical evidence.” The Journal of Speech and Language Pathology – Applied Behavior Analysis 1, no. 2 (2006): 94.
    10. Leanderson, Rolf, and Johan Sundberg. “Breathing for singing.” Journal of Voice 2, no. 1 (1988): 2-12.
    11. Drake, Jennifer. “Music Therapy and Communication Disabilities: Singing, Speech, and the Brain.” (2014).
    12. Guyon, Amélie JAA, Rosamaria Cannavò, Regina K. Studer, Horst Hildebrandt, Brigitta Danuser, Elke Vlemincx, and Patrick Gomez. “Respiratory Variability, Sighing, Anxiety, and Breathing Symptoms in Low and High-Anxious Music Students Before and After Performing.” Frontiers in Psychology 11 (2020).
    13. Studer, Regina, Brigitta Danuser, Horst Hildebrandt, Marc Arial, and Patrick Gomez. “Hyperventilation complaints in music performance anxiety among classical music students.” Journal of Psychosomatic Research 70, no. 6 (2011): 557-564.
    15. Swift, A. C., I. T. Campbell, and TessaM Mckown. “Oronasal
    obstruction, lung volumes, and arterial oxygenation.” The Lancet 331, no. 8577 (1988): 73-75.
    1. Nierenberg, Amelia and Tim Herrera. “How to Protect Yourself and Prepare for the Coronavirus.” New York Published April 6, 2020. prepare-for-coronavirus. html%20–%20link-31d0f886 (accessed December 17, 2020).
    2. zou, Xin, Ke Chen, Jiawei zou, Peiyi Han, Jie Hao, and zeguang Han. “Single-cell RNA seq data analysis on the receptor ACE2 expression reveals the potential risk of different human organs vulnerable to 2019-nCoV infection.” Frontiers of medicine (2020): 1-8.
    3. Attia, Peter. “#covid Q&A video.” Published March 12, 2020.
    (accessed December 17, 2020).
    4. Åkerström, Sara, Mehrdad Mousavi Jazi, Jonas Klingström, Mikael
    Leijon, Åke Lundkvist, and Ali Mirazimi. «Nitric oxide inhibits the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.» Journal of virology 79, no. 3 (2005): 1966-1969.
    5. Lundberg, J. O. N., and E. Weitzberg. “Nasal nitric oxide in man.” Thorax 54, no. 10 (1999): 947-952.
    6. Antosova, M., D. Mokra, L. Pepucha, J. Plevkova, T. Buday, M. Sterusky, and A. Bencova. “Physiology of nitric oxide in the respiratory system.” Physiological Research 66 (2017).
    7. Sun, Peng, Jin Wang, Pragna Mehta, David L. Beckman, and Lin Liu. “Effect of nitric oxide on lung surfactant secretion.” Experimental lung research 29, no. 5 (2003): 303-314.
    8. Åkerström, Sara, Vithiagaran Gunalan, Choong Tat Keng, Yee-Joo Tan, and Ali Mirazimi. «Dual effect of nitric oxide on SARS-CoV replication: viral RNA production and palmitoylation of the S protein are affected.» Virology 395, no. 1 (2009): 1-9.
    9. Maniscalco, M., E. Weitzberg, J. Sundberg, M. Sofia, and J. O. Lundberg. “Assessment of nasal and sinus nitric oxide output using single breath humming exhalations.” European Respiratory Journal 22, no. 2 (2003): 323-329.
    10. Belluz, Julia. “China’s cases of Covid-19 are finally declining. A WHO expert explains why.” Published March 3, 2020. (accessed December 17, 2020).

Wil jij graag met ons verder praten over ProBreathing en Buteyko?
Neem dan gerust contact met ons op.

    * Dit veld is verplicht